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he has a chance, I "accede" to him. If my main object is to prevent if possible the election of either B or C I accede to some other cardinal, in the hope that the votes given to him, if not sufficient to elect him, may at least, in Conclave language, give an exclusion to B and C, i.e. prevent either of them from having a twothirds majority. It will be seen that the "accessit" requires for its management some of the most delicate and dexterous play of any portion of the Conclave operations.

The second act of the post-scrutinium, when no election has been made at the first vote, is the opening of the seals which seal down that fold of the voting paper where the number and the motto are written, to ascertain that the first and second votes are by the same person, and are given either "nemini," or to a different candidate from him voted for the first time; the third, the numbering; and the fourth, the examination of the votes (only in case an election has been accomplished). The fifth act of the post-scrutinium is the adding together the votes obtained by the different candidates in the scrutiny and the " accessit." The sixth act consists in the verification by the " ricognitori" of the votes and the counting of them by the scrutators; and the seventh and last in the burning of the voting papers.

It should be noted, however, that in the examination of the votes, if an election should have been made by a number of votes exactly sufficient to constitute the required two-thirds majority, the scrutators must ascertain that the person elected has not voted for himself. Otherwise no election would have been made.

Volumes of subtle casuistry have been written on the exact sense of the terms of the cardinal's oath, that he will elect him whom he believes before God ought to be elected, and on the degree of literalness in which it must be assumed to be binding on the conscience. At the beginning of a Conclave many scrutinies are gone through without any thought of coming to an election, merely to try the strength of the different parties and to explore the ground. Conclave tacticians are of opinion that an elector may often injure the final chance of a candidate by voting for him from the outset in these tentative skirmishes. Is an elector, therefore, to injure the chance of the man whom he believes to be the fittest by voting for him at such times? A man may in bis heart and conscience believe himself to be the fittest there to be made Pope. Is he bound to risk invalidating his own election by voting for himself? Or must he vote for some one whom he does not think the fittest? May a man vote for one whom he deems unfit when it is clear that that one will be elected? Answer: Tes! because it is fitting that an election should be made with concord and without giving rise to evil passions. Such questions and "cases" might be, and indeed have been, multiplied almost ad infinitum.

But the entire history of the Conclaves in which the Popes have been elected, and of the rules which have been enacted for the regulation of them and restriction of the actors in them, is one long series of demonstrations of the vanity and futility of endeavouring to bind by law the wills of men whose power is above that of law, and who recognise no superior. Prescription has a certain amount of power, which is even greatly increased when it is applied to a corporate body. But it breaks down under the strain of the temptations to which those are exposed to whom so great a business as the election of a Pope is entrusted. Given the necessity of having a Pope, it would probably be impossible to devise a better means of getting one than that which the Church has gradually perfected. But she attempts the impossible; and her efforts to secure her aim, though they have been to a great degree successful, have resulted in an amount of false pretence, solemn sham, hypocrisy, and substitution of pompous appearance for reality, the long story of which makes the account of these Conclaves somewhat humiliating reading for the believer in human perfectibility.

INDEX.

Abdication of Celestine V., 87.

Abnormal length of the reign of the

"Antipope, Benedict XIII., 86.

"papal elections, 57.

Abuses of the secret system of nominat-
ing Cardinals, 25.

Accumulation of wealth by papal
families, 317-322.

Advantage of a numerous College of
Cardinals, 23.

Age of candidates for the Cardinalate,
47.

Alexander VTL, character of, 337.

modified nepotism of,

338

Announcement of their creation to new

Cardinals, 35.
Antecedents of Moroni, Gregory

XIV.'s barber, 93.
Antipopes, 57. *
Ascetio and bigoted character of

Michael Ghislieri, Pius V., 244.

B.

Alexander VIII., 388.

and his secretary,

afterwards Clement XI., 27, 28.

Amount of dotation permissible to a
papal nephew, 321.

Anecdote of Cardinal Altieri on the eve
of his election as Clement X., 375.

Anecdote of Cardinal de ftetz, 377.

Giampietri'Caraffa

(Paul IV.), 229.

Giangiacomo Medici,

brother of Pius IV., 232.

————— Gregory XIV. and Boni-
facio Vanozzi, 26-27.

an hereditary conclave

"custode," 135.

an intrusive Conclavist, 221.

Matthew Corle, the papal

physician, 86.

Nicholas IV., 85.

"Nicholas V. and his mother,

144.

Paul II., 156.
Sixtus V., 260.

Anecdotes of the Conclave at the death
of Eugenius IV., 137-141. .

"that elected

Pius II., 146-151.

Barberini Family, downfall of the, 324.
Behaviour of newly created Cardinals,

36.
Benedict XIV., character of, 338.
Beretta, the, 36, 43. -—
Berettina, the, 36, 42. —
Bitter dissensions in the Sacred College

(1303), 90.
Bull of Sixtus V.,'finally regulating tho

composition of the Sacred College,

18, 19.
Bulls of Gregory XV. forming the

basis of Conclave Law, 229. Pius VI., promulgated in

1782 and 1798, 407.
Burial of Alexander VI., extraordinary,

173.

Cardinal Albani in the Conclave after
the death of Clement XII., cunning
intrigues of, 385-387.

nephew of Clement

XI., sketch of, 380.

de Coligny, deposition of, by

Pius IV., 50.

"deacons, 21

Cardinal's hat, the, 36, 37. ~~
Cardinal Ludovisi during the reign of
Gregory XV., influence of, 298.

Moroni accused of heresy in

1557, 251.

"Nephews," 138.

-, origin of the term, 14,

Cardinal Pole, of England, nearly
elected to the Papacy, 205-208.

loacs his election by his

scruples, 208.

Rohan, French naivete of,

381.

Cardinals and Cardinal Deacons, dif-
ference between, 21. —

, early, differing ecclesiastical

rank of, 16.

-, fifty churches after 'which

they arc called, 20.

-, during Conclave, inaccessi-

bility of, 65.

-, juvenile, made by Alexander

VI., 48.

by Alexander VHI., 52.

by Clement VI., 48.

by Clement VIII., 52.

by Eugenius IV., 48.

by Honorius II., 48.

by Innocent VIII., 48.

by Innocent IX., 51.

by Innocent X., 52.

by Julius III., 51.

by Paul III., 51.

by Paul V., 52. |

by Sixtus IV., 48.

by Sixtus V., 51.

by Urban VIII., 52.

Cardinals, new, receptions held by,
44, 45.

• , newly created, behaviour

'expected of, 36.

, objections to the secret sys-
tem of nomination to the order of, 25.

, original number of, 18.

in petto, 23, 24.

, rapid succession of, 21, 22.

-, six sees after which they are

called, 19.

y , social position in the Roman

world of, 29.
. Cardinalitial ring, the, 46.

Carlo Borromeo, the celebrated Arch-
bishop of Milan, 247.

Catastrophe at the coronation of
Clement V, 94.

Celebration of public obsequies at the
death of a Pope, 71.

Cells prepared for the Cardinals in
Conclave, 398.

Change in the position of the Popes, 315.

Character of Adrian VI., 188.

Gregory XIII., 259.

- Pius IV., 233.

Choice of a locality for Conclaves, 69.

Chronicle of the diarist Infessura, 162.

Clement VIII., 261.

Close of the day in Conclave, 417.

376.

387.

312.

Close of the era of "the Zealous Popes,"

295.
Closing of the Council of Trent in

1563, 241.
"Closing and opening" of the mouths

of new Cardinals, 45, 46.
Commencement of modern Papal

history, 77.
Conclave at the death of Alexander

VI., 175. of Adrian VI., 190-

196.

of Calistus III., 145.

.— of Clement VII., 197.

-ofClement IX., 346-

- of Clement XII., 379-

- of Eugenius IV., 135.

- of Gregory XI., 106.

- of Gregory XV., 303-

- of Innocent VI.. 98.
-of Innocent VIII., 171.

- of Innocent X., 332,

-of John XXII., 95.

— of Julius II., 180.

of Julius HI., 213,221.

of Leo X., 186.

of Leo XI., 262-292.

ofMarcellus II., 224.

of Paul II., 156.

of Paul in., 204-211.

of Paul IV., 236-240.

of Pius II., 155.

of Pius III., 178.

of Pius IV., 245-257.

of Urban VEIL, 322.

of Sixtus IV., 167.

, the modern, 395-428.

, a modern, how the day

passes at, 414, 415.

regulations, futility of, 427.

at Viterbo in 1269, remark -

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able, 60.
Conclaves in the eighteenth century,

389.
', modem, internal discipline

of, 399. in the nineteenth century,

390. during the schism of 1378—

1417, 125.
Confusion in Christendom after the

election of the antipope Clement

VII., 123, 124.
Congregation of Rites, the, 37.
Conspiracy to assassinate Pius IV.,

243.

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