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seniority), who walks at the right hand of the carriage door. The "dean," we remember, is waiting to open the door of the carriage for his master on his arrival. The new cardinal is received at the palace doors by a master of the ceremonies and the chief of the outrunners, and proceeds to the ante-chamber, where the cardinal nephew meets him and conducts him to his own apartment, where the master of ceremonies takes the prelate's band off him, and girds him with one adorned with tassels of gold. He also puts on him, unless he be a member of a monastic order, a rochet * and mantle. And thus accoutred he is presented by the cardinal nephew to the Pope, whom he finds seated on his throne clothed in rochet and cape,t and surrounded by all the dignitaries of his court. The new dignitary approaching kneels three times at intervals, and on arriving at the foot of the throne, led by the master of the ceremonies, he prostrates himself to kis the papal slipper. The master of the ceremonies then brings the scarlet mozzetta which the Pope places on the shoulders of the new cardinal with his own hands. He then similarly places the "berretta" of like colour on his head. But the master of the ceremonies who brought the mozzetta must not touch the berretta. The latter is brought by a prelate, "Monsignore Guardaroba," or at least by his deputy. As soon as this has heen done, the new cardinal again kisses the foot and also the knee of the Pontiff, who then gives him the kiss of peace on both cheeks—lo ammette al duplice amplesso. Then the Pope makes a speech, in which he speaks of the shining merits of the new dignitary, of the motives which have moved him (the Pope) to make the creation, and reminds the new cardinal of the duties and responsibilities, which that dignity brings with it. The cardinal—or the senior of the group in the name of all, if, as is ordinarily the case, there are several—makes a speech in reply, full of promises and thanks, and concluding, says Moroni, * as if he were giving a receipt for the performance of this task, with a declaration that it is only to the Pontiff's indulgence that the promotion is due. Indeed, Parisi, the writer of a work entitled, "Instructions," respecting all these points of ceremonial, gives a collection of forms for these thanksgiving speeches!

* The " rochet" is the linen garment reaching about half-way down the body, with sleeves covering the entire arm to the wrist, generally richly laced, which in the Eoman Catholic Church answers to our surplice.

t Mozzetta. The mozzetta is that cape of fur or of silk peculiar to the Pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, and canons, which the lattor are ordinarily seen wearing in the choir during service.

As soon as the speech is finished the first master of the ceremonies pronounces "Extra omnes," and the Pope and the new cardinals and the Cardinal Secretary of State are left for awhile alone together. When they are dismissed they return to the outer room, where they find the "Monsignore Sotto Guardaroba" waiting for them, ready to present to each on a silver salver the berettina, or scarlet skull-cap, to be worn under tho berretta, which they have already received in the Pope's presence; after which they return to the apartment of the Secretary of State, and after a little conversation depart in their carriages as they came. Arrived

• Vol. v. p. 160.

at his own residence, the new cardinal lays aside his rochet and mantle, and clad in cardinal's cassock and cape, and " with his red berretta in his hand," proceeds to receive the congratulatory visits of the Eoman world.

The laws and regulations prescribed respecting the honorific custody, and, one may say, attendance, on this talismanic scarlet cap (not to to be confounded, it should be observed, with the still more majestic and awful Hat), are curiously illustrative of the ways and tone of the old Roman society. Even after the day of which we arc speaking, the berretta is to be placed on a little table all to itself in the cardinal's throne apartment. His Eminence uses it whenever he is in a cardinal's canonicals. And on these occasions, when he takes it from his head, he gives it to his "gentleman of the chamber" to hold. When, however, his Eminence attends collegiate service in the Papal or Cardinal's Chapel, at the entrance to the sacristy, the gentleman of the chamber consigns the cap to the cardinal's trainbearer, who never quits his master, and hands it to him every time he covers himself during the service, which is very frequently, and when he receives incense. But on, those occasions when the cardinals wear the mitre, the gentleman of the chamber always carries the berretta, and in processions holds it in his hand walking by the side of his master, "as an ensign," says Moroni,* of the cardinalitial dignity. Caraccioli, Bishop of Lecce, in the fifteenth century, strongly recommends the kissing of the berretta every morning and every evening.

* Loc. til.

When any one of royal blood, or a brother or a nephew of the Pope, is created cardinal, the guns of St. Angelo fire a salute; and at the Consistory in which the publication is made the oldest member of the Sacred College rises immediately on the declaration of the name by the Pope, and prays the Pontiff to give him the scarlet bcrrctta instantly on the spot, which, in accordance with duly registered precedent, his Holiness does.

The receptions held by newly-created cardinals on the evening of the day of their creations, as mentioned above, were always one of the great features in the old Eoman society, and the evening in question was looked forward to as a time of high festival by all the city. There was a general illumination of the city, with fireworks and burning of tar-barrels, specially in front of the palaces of the cardinals and the representatives of foreign sovereigns. The fronts of the residences of the new cardinals were ornamented with illuminations in elaborate designs, and vast sums were spent on these decorations by the richer dignitaries, specially by such as were desirous of ingratiating themselves with the Eoman people. It was a great matter for fine-drawn political speculations to watch carefully who went and who omitted to go, or who went early and eagerly and who late and perfunctorily, to the new cardinal's reception on the night of his creation. As a rule, "all Eome" was there, and his Eminence's rooms were all a-glitter with the crosses and stars of diplomatists, the gorgeous robes of ecclesiastical princes, and the diamonds of the Eoman ladies, to whom these receptions were occasions for displaying their utmost magnificence. The appearance of (say) the Imperial ambassador's wife with less than the full array of diamonds she was known to possess, still more, of course, her nonappearance, would at once have made a ground for speculating on the probability that the newly-made cardinal would be struck by the Imperial "Veto "* at the next papal election. The doors of the new Eminence were understood to be open on this occasion; and any stranger in Eome, or indeed anybody to whom the tailor or milliner had given a satisfactory ticket of admission, might enter.

There is one other curious ceremony which must be noticed before this, it may be feared tedious, chapter of the mode of cardinal-making can be concluded—the closing and opening of the mouths of the new cardinals. In the first secret Consistory after the creation, before laying before the members of the Sacred College the business in hand, the Pope addresses these words to the lately promoted dignitaries: "Claudimus vobis os, ut neque in consistoriis, neque in congregationibus, aliisque functionibus cardinalitiis sententiam vestram dicere valeatis." f And at the end of the same Consistory he says: "AperJ^Sms vobis os, J ut in consistoriis, &c, &c, sententiam vestram dicere valeatis. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen." And so saying, he makes the sign of the cross thrice with his right hand.

* An account of the origin, nature, and practice of this usage will be found in a subsequent chapter.

f " We close your mouths, so that you have no power to speak your opinion in consistories or congregations, or any cardinalitial functions."

\ "We open your mouths," &c. &c.

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