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of season unless when the Conclave has lasted over two months.

If a cardinal should die in Conclave all his attendants shall go out of it.*

In the first meeting of the cardinals after the death of a Pope the constitutions of Gregory X. respecting the Conclave, those of Julius II. on simoniacal election, those of Pius IV. and Gregory XV. as to the ceremonial of the Conclave, shall be read. At the second meeting the officials of Eome and the State shall be confirmed in their places. In the third meeting the confessor of the Conclave shall be elected, and the deceased Pope shall be buried, the cardinals, his creatures, being present. In the fourth meeting the physicians and the surgeon of the Conclave shall be elected. In the fifth the barbers and the apothecary shall be elected. In the sixth meeting the junior cardinal deacon shall draw lots for the cells of the cardinals in the Conclave, and the masters of the ceremonies shall show the brief by virtue of 'which each of them is to enter the Conclave. In the seventh meeting those cardinals who7 being in Eome, shall -wish to have a third conclavist, shall prefer their petitions to that effect. In the eighth meeting two cardinals shall be appointed, who shall have the duty of scrutinizing all those who shall enter into Conclave, and to whom all who are to enter as conclavists shall present their names, and the names of the countries from which they come, and of the cardinal to whom they are attached. In the ninth meeting three cardinals shall be elected who shall watch over the due closing of the Conclave. In the tenth and last meeting those cardinals who are not in deacon's orders shall present the brief of dispensation by virtue of which they propose to enter into Conclave. On the following day, when the mass of the Holy Ghost has been celebrated, and the prayer respecting the election of a Pope has been recited, all the cardinals shall proceed processionally to the Conclave, where the various constitutions of the Pontiffs respecting the mode of election, and at the end of them these present rules of Clement XII., shall be read.

* It might have been expected that the rule should have been that the* attendant conclavists and others should in such case not have quitted the Conclave. What becomes, under the rule as given, of the absolute non-communication to the outside world of what has passed and is passing in Conclave?

When Pius VI. determined to go to Vienna in 1782, he left a Bull by which the Sacred College was enjoined in case of his death while absent to hold the Conclave in Eome, the same as if he had died there. But when in 1798 the same Pope was driven from Eome by the French, and taken prisoner to the monastery of the Certosa, near Florence, in view of his probable death at a time which should find all the cardinals dispersed or imprisoned, he gave a Bull to his nunzio at Florence, Cardinal Odescalchi, empowering the College to elect his successor in whatsoever place the greatest number of them could meet together. This Bull, commencing with the words, "Attentis peculioribus et deplorabilibus circumstantiis," suspends by Apostolical authority all the ancient laws for the election of the Pontiff and for the holding of the Conclave. It further empowers the cardinals to dispense with the usual forms and solemnities of the Conclave, especially as to shortening at their own discretion the time which ought, according to rule, to elapse between the death of the Pope and the election. Novaes, in his life of Pius VI., declares that a chamberlain of Monsignore Carracciolo, who was Master of the Chamber to the Pope, carried this Bull secretly to the cardinals who were at Naples, at Venice, and in other cities near at hand. And it is probable that Novaes is right. But other writers maintain that this Bull was prepared in Eorne before the Pope was compelled to leave it, which was on the 11th of February, 1798, and that Cardinal Albani, the Dean of the Sacred College, determined with such of the cardinals as were accessible that they should meet at Venice, at the same time communicating this arrangement to all the Catholic European sovereigns. The precedent is one which probably will not have escaped the attention of some of those who are not Catholic sovereigns, in view of the next papal election, which cannot be far off, although, as far as can be judged from the present aspect of affairs, there seems little possibility of doubting that the Conclave will be held and the future Pontiff elected in exact and scrupulously regular conformity with precedent.

CHAPTER III.

Three Canonical modes of election.—Scrutiny and "Accessit."—Entry of the Cardinals into Chapel for the scrutiny.—Vestments.—Mode of preparing the Sistine Chapel for the scrutiny.—The Seats of the Cardinals at the Scrutiny.—The "Sfumata."—How the day passes in Conclave.—The bringing of the Cardinals' dinners.—Cardinals heads of Monastic Orders.—Close of the day in Conclave.

Of the three modes of election recognised as regular and canonical in Conclave, that by "adoration," "inspiration," or "acclamation," and that by "compromise," have been sufficiently explained in former chapters. It remains to give an account of the election by "scrutiny" and " accessit," which may be considered as the method practised at the present day. These two terms do not signify two different modes of performing the election, but two portions of the same method of arriving at a result, as will be seen from what follows. - The afternoon of the first day, after the processional entry of the cardinals into Conclave, having been occupied with visits and adieus, as has been described, and the "Extra Omnes" having been pronounced at the third ringing of the bell, their Eminences take possession of the cells which chance has assigned to them, and retire for the night. The next morning at eight o'clock the junior master of the ceremonies rings a bell at the door of each cell, and a second time half an hour later. At nine he rings a third time, adding this time to his bell the call, " In Capellam, Domini!"—" To chapel, my lords!" Then the cardinals, clad in cassock, band, rochet, cape, and croccia,* and with their scarlet berrette, and attended by their conclavists, proceed to the Paoline Chapel, where mass is celebrated by the Dean of the College, and the communion is administered to them. The croccia is on this occasion taken off in chapel before communicating, and a white stole assumed in place of it, which is to be handed to them by the master of the ceremonies. The cardinals belonging to the monastic orders do not assume the rochet, except the heads of certain orders who have the privilege of wearing it. Whole pages might be filled with minutiee of this sort, all regulated in the most precise manner. The above have been given as a specimen of the infinitely numerous and infinitesimally small regulations with which the whole of the procedure—as well indeed as every other portion of Eoman Court life—is surrounded!

After the service in the chapel their Eminences retire to their cells to breakfast; after which they go, accompanied by their conclavists, to the Sistine Chapel, without their rochets, to proceed to the first scrutiny. One of the conclavists at the door of the chapel hands to his cardinal a closed desk or box containing the ruled and prepared registers for the day's voting, the schedules printed and prepared (as will be presently described) for giving the votes, the cardinal's seal and

* A garment specially worn in Conclave. It is a long mantle of serge or merino from the neck to the feet, opon in front, and with a train behind. The latter is tied up in a knot, only loosened when the wearer is receiving the Eucharist.

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