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netti's) amiable qualities," the conclavist goes on to say, "resounds everywhere; for he has made it his special aim to gain universal popularity, after the fashion of Cardinal Giulio Eospigliosi, who, by being hail-fellowwell-met with everybody who sought him, and by never failing to answer the letters of even the most obscure and low persons (filling his letters, too, with all the same courteous expressions that he used to persons of quality), found the means of winning everybody's heart in such sort that he made everybody believe that he was his special confidant and friend. In the same manner, Facchinetti has as many friends as Eospigliosi had adherents; but as these tricks are generally played off by persons more ingenious than ingenuous, it might be feared (were it not for his well-known virtue) that if he should ascend the throne his confidants and friends might find themselves deluded and neglected." That last parenthesis is delicious, and one fancies that one can see the expression of the sly old conclavist's face as he wrote it; but I think it may be assumed, without much fear of mistake, that the writer was not one of those whom Facchinetti's popularity-hunting had captivated.

Next came, sixth on the list, the Genoese Cardinal Grimani, who was bom in 1603. The conclavist says that he was injured as a candidate for the Papacy by the belief that he was French in his sympathies; but that, if the truth were known, that would be found so far from being the case that the Spaniards would understand that he is the man they would most wish for. Indeed, says the conclavist, "the Church, the State, nay the whole world, could desire nothing better than the exaltation (i.e. election) of this great man."

Gabrielli, a Eoman cardinal, is the seventh of the papabili. "And if St. Paul had been Christ's Vicar, he might justly pretend to be his successor by reason of his personal likeness to that apostle. He is," continues the writer, "of Portuguese origin, and his sordid mode of life gives testimony to that fact in the most remarkable manner." Barberini names him aspapabile merely as being one of Urban's creatures. Medici is favourable to him "with a superficial adherence." But his Eminence Gabrielli has no acquaintance with state affairs, and he does not enjoy either esteem or favour in public opinion. "And this is all," concludes the conclavist, "that there is to be said about him!"

Odeschalchi comes next, the eighth. His "rare excellencies in point of holiness of .life would make him an excellent Pontiff, if he were in other respects fitted to the present needs of the Church." In the first place, he is only fifty-eight, and in such robust health that if he were elected a long Papacy might reasonably be counted on: and this alone is sufficient to make the crowned heads hostile to him. He is a great lover of study, of excellently good intentions, charitable to the needy to the utmost limit of his means, and if the people of Eome had votes he would be Pope to a certainty; but he is reserved and ungenial in his manners, and scrupulous to excess in matters of conscience, which stands much in his way. The Spanish faction object to him on various grounds; and the French would be very sorry to see a Pope so austere, both in reality and in appearance, as the conclavist says, on the throne of St. Peter. Cardinal Imperiale is a great enemy of his, but that would rather be of service to him than otherwise. On the whole, it is hardly likely that he should be the successful candidate. He was not so on this occasion; but from the next Conclave, six years later, he came forth as Innocent XI., and showed himself to be the right man in the right place, as regarded the needs of the Church at that time, to a degree which the elections of the Sacred College have rarely equalled.

Albizzi, ninth on the list, is a very different sort of man. Haughty, bold, enterprising, ambitious, every man in the Sacred College is afraid of him. The Spaniards would absolutely refuse to accept him. The French would not object to him because he is objected to by the Spaniards, and because "they have nothing to lose in Italy." The Florentines would naturally be in his favour as a countryman of their own, but that they are afraid of him. He is one of Barberini's candidates, as having been a "creature" of Urban; but neither Chigi nor Eospigliosi with their respective adherents would hear of him, deeming him "a man too terrible and exceedingly learned."

Cardinal Cibo, the brother of the reigning Prince of Massa, is the tenth of the papabili. There is little else than good to be said of him. He is a man of exceeding pleasing and popular manners, and would, the conclavist thinks, make a very good Pope. He would be acceptable to the crowned heads, who in his case probably would not be rigorous in adhering to their maxim of requiring a Pope to be not less than seventy. Barberini

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could, the conclavist thinks, have no objection to him. And the squadrone volante, of which he is a member, could not but be pleased to see so creditable a member of their party raised to power. The Medici, too, would not refuse to concur in his election. Nevertheless, with all this, he will not be proposed by the leader of any faction, and "therefore he must recommend himself for aid to the Holy Ghost, since he has an objection to anything simoniacal." The reader is left to conclude that his chance is a desperate one.

Of the Venetian Cardinal Ottoboni the conclavist writes only this: "So many are the writings current in Eome respecting the Venetian Ottoboni, that it is unnecessary to say anything here about him, save that, during all the time that he governed the Dataria, he has shown himself so hostile to princes and to men of merit, that it is hardly likely, despite his sardonic grin, that he should ever at any time attain to the Papacy." Nineteen years subsequently, however, after Altieri had reigned more than six as Clement X., and Odeschalchi had reigned more than twelve as Innocent XI., this Ottoboni was elected Pope, "despite his sardonic grin," as Alexander VIII. But promotion came to him, as to so many another, too late, and he reigned only sixteen months.

We come next to Cardinal Spada, a Lucchese, in his seventy-third year. He was the favourite candidate of the squadrone volante, and was probably the man whom Barberini would most willingly have contributed to elect, if he should be unable to secure the election of Facchinetti. The whole of the squadrone would vote for him; and it was thought that Cardinal Azzolini, one of their number, would very possibly be able to persuade Eospigliosi and the Clementine cardinals to acquiesce in his election. Chigi and the Alexandrines would oppose him; but it was calculated that, unless the French party and the Medici party joined Chigi in his opposition, he would hardly succeed in preventing his election. In short, Spada's chance was thought a good one.

Another cardinal from Lucca is the thirteenth on the list, his Eminence Bonvisi, now in his sixty-third year. He is described as naturally candid, open to conviction, liberal, kindly, and sincere. He is said to possess a very intimate knowledge of the European Courts and of the policy of their rulers, though, as clerk of the Apostolic Chamber, his own special business had led him to be more versed in legal matters. It is remarked that he is, as a Lucca man, specially well informed of all that is going on in Europe, from the particular care which that republic takes to keep itself well acquainted with such matters. And "as the people of that nation (the Lucchese) are known to be industrious, affable, and courteous," it would, says the conclavist, be much for the advantage of the Church and the city of Eome to have a Pope with such qualities. The chief objection to so admirable a candidate (" such is the perversity of the world!" ejaculates our conclavist) is, that Francesco, his nephew, is too clever by half! On the contrary, our author maintains, the nephew would furnish an excellent complement to the qualities of the uncle, who, by reason of failing health, might be found to be slow, and too

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