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same thing was repeated in the church of the Twelve Apostles. The next day, the Saturday, at the mass at St. Peter's, after the Introit and the Collect, the Pontiff, turning to the people, pronounced these words: "Auxiliante Domine Deo, et Salvatore nostro Jesu Christo eligimus in ordinem Diaconi (N. N.) de titulo (N. N.) ad diaconiam (N. N.) et (N. N.) Diaconum di titulo (N. N.) in ordine Presbyteratus ad titulum (N. N.). Si quis autem habet aliquid contra hos viros, pro Deo et propter Deum exeat et dicat. Verumtamen memor yit conditionis ^ suae."* Then there was a pause for a short period, and if nobody came forward with any objection, the Pope proceeded to celebrate mass, and then declared the promotion of the persons named to the cardinalate, and gave them the scarlet hat then and there.

At a somewhat later period the Pope asked of the Sacred College assembled in secret Consistory whether in their opinion there should be a creation of cardinals, and of how many. Then on receiving an affirmative reply to the first question, he pronounced the words: "Nos sequimur consilium dicentium quod fiant." f Then according to the tenor of the replies to the second question, he said: "Nos sequimur consilium dicentium quod fiant,"—such or such a number. He then requested the members of the College to give the choice of persons their best consideration, and so dismissed the meeting. A second Consistory was held on the following Friday, and the first thing done was the deputing by the Pope of two cardinals to go to the residence of all those who were too infirm to attend the Consistory r and collect their votes as to the persons to be promoted. When the deputation returned the Pope said: "Portetur nuda cathedra!" * Thereupon all the cardinals rose and ranged themselves against the wall of the hall so as to be out of ear-shot of the Pope's seat. The chair was placed at the Pontiff's right hand, and the Dean of the Sacred College seated himself in it. The Pope then in a low voice told him whom he thought of creating, and concluded with "Quid vobis videtur?" f One by one in order of seniority the whole College was thus consulted. "When this was completed the Pope said aloud: "Deo gratias, habemus de personis creandis concordiam omnium fratrum," or "quasi omnium," or "majoris partis," J as the case might be. And then the Pontiff at once proclaimed the new dignitaries with the following formula: "Auctoritate Dei omnipotentis, sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et nostra creamus Sanctse Eomanse Ecclesise cardinales presbyteros quidem (N. N.), diaconos vero (N. N.), cum dispensationibus derogationibus et clausulis necessariis et opportunis.'' &c. On the following Saturday a public Consistory was held, at which the Pope addressed a hortatory allocution to the new cardinals, placed the hat on their heads, and kept them to dine with him. Soon, however, we find all semblance of consulting the Sacred College dropped; and long before the intricate mass of rules for the ceremonial at present

* "Let him however be mindful of his own condition." A hint not to speak lightly or presumingly.

t "We follow the advice of those who say that there should be a creation."

* "Let an empty chair be brought." t " What do you think of it?"

j "Thanks be to God, we have the consent of all our brethren," or " of nearly all of them," or " of the majority."

prevailing were invented, the Pope simply announced to the assembled cardinals, "Habemus fratres;" * and then proceeded to declare the names of those he chose to promote.

It will be observed that from a very early time secrecy as to the names of those who were to be made cardinals, formed, as it still does amid so much else that has become changed, a very prominent feature in the method of proceeding. And we gather from this fact an indication of the difficulty the Popes had to steer their way in this matter amid all the jealousies, enmities, intrigues, which this exercise of their patronage brought into play, and which in the earlier times were always tending to break out into open violence and even warfare. They had also to guard against the embarrassments arising from the requests of those whom it might often have been difficult to refuse.

In later times, when the Pope has determined on the creation of a batch of cardinals, he calls a secret Consistory—an assembly, that is to say, of the Sacred College. He then proceeds to read the allocution, the preparation of which was described in the last chapter, and at the conclusion of it says, "Quid vobis videtur?" —-" How seems it to you?" The words are as unreal a form as the "in pace" which consigned an erring nun to her living grave. For any expression of opinion on the subject by any member of the assembly would be as much out of the question in the one case as the hypocritical farewell is meaningless in the other. The assembled cardinals all rise, take off their purple caps (bcrretta) and gravely bow their heads. Thereupon the Pope proceeds to the creation in the following solemn form of words: "Auctoritate omnipotentis Dei, sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli ac nostra, creamus Sancta Eomana3 EcclesisB, cardinales presbyteros quidem (N. N.), diaconos vero (N. N.), cum dispensationibus, derogationibus, et clausulis necessariis et opportunis." * If any cardinals are to be created in petto, he here adds the form of words above given in the former chapter. He then thrice makes the sign of the cross with his right hand, saying as he does so, "In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen." And the Consistory is at an end.

* "We have as brothers."

It is supposed that no one of the newly made Cardinals has any idea that such greatness is about to be thrust upon him. Of course it is almost always all perfectly well known beforehand. There have been cases, however, in which the news of the promotion was wholly unexpected by the subject of it, but they are so few that Moroni gives a list of all the recorded cases. There are also many cases, occurring in times when communications were not so rapid as they arc now, of persons having been created cardinals who were dead at the time of their creation.

With regard to those cardinals who are in Eome, and who are supposed to be entirely ignorant of the coming greatness, a master of ceremonies clothed in a purple mantle proceeds immediately after the termination of the Consistory to announce this promotion to each of them viva voce at their own residences, informing them at the same time at what hour that same afternoon they are to go to the Apostolic Palace to receive the purple cap. In fact, however, this is not the first notice the new cardinals have received of their promotion, for a servant of the Cardinal Secretary of State, carrying a note from his master, has outrun the Master of Ceremonies in his purple mantle and anticipated him. A third messenger, however, bringing the same glad tidings, comes to each of the new Eminences. For the Cardinal Vice-Chancellor, being by virtue of his office the only man who can authentically certify the acts done in the Consistory, his substitute starts even before the Consistory is quite at an end, that is, as soon as ever the bell sounds which announces the utterance of the creating words, and is thus the first of all to carry the tidings. All this is settled prescriptively and perfectly known to all Eome— to all Eome as it was, for the greater part of the Eome of the present day knows no more of such matters than Londoners do. And it was not without reason that it should have been so, for all these various annunciations were the occasion of receiving large fees—a valuable part of the emoluments of the different offices, which, in some cases, had been bought on careful calculation of such profits.

* "By the authority of Omnipotent God, and by that of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own, we create cardinals of the holy Eoman Church, in the rank of priests (So and so), and in the rank of deacons (So and so), with all the necessary and fitting dispensations, limitations, and reservations."

As soon as ever the first announcement has been received, the new cardinal places himself clothed in purple cassock and band on the threshold of his residence, there to receive standing the so-called visite di calore, —the first heat visits, as we may say, of the prelates, no.bles, military officers, and cardinals' gentlemen, who

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