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behind the Pope's chair, without anything being said to me, though I had been perceived by cardinals; and so, all of them being seated, the Cardinal of Naples (Caraffa), as Dean, stood up and gave his vote vivd voce for the Cardinal of Santa Croce; and in the same manner did the others give their votes, a secretary writing down each like a notary, when, just as they had finished, the Ave Maria sounded, which having been repeated by all, as if in thanks to God for the consummation of the election, the Pope rose and made a little Latin speech, thanking the College for its choice, and expressing his resolve, though conscious of unworthiness and insufficiency for such a charge, to do his duty, with an engagement to attend to no private interest, but only to the good of all, and several other words very much to the point, and of great gravity. Hereupon the Cardinal of Naples as Dean got up and said, that, in observance of the ancient rules, a ballot should be taken the following morning, with the voting papers open, in order that his Holiness might see the good affection of all towards him, and this without prejudice of the present election, which was approved by all, who unanimously would have the Pope speak the words, "Acceptamus sine prejudicio prsesentis electionis." After this all the cardinals kissed the Pope; and, the doors having been opened, I was the first who kissed his feet, which he would not have me do, saying that it would have been better next day. Nevertheless I did kiss them, and then all left the chapel, attending the Pope to his cell, which he found so thoroughly gutted by the conclavists that he was forced to betake himself into that of the Cardinal of Montepulciano, when he at once resolved on getting crowned next day in St. Peter's. While all this noise was going on, the gates of the Conclave were forced and a mob entered, so that, but for Messer Antonio Cornia,* the whole Conclave had a chance of being gutted. As soon as he had come in measures of precaution were, however, taken for everything, and no one entered more but a few prelates, who came to kiss the feet of his Holiness. All that night long one slept but badly from the sound and noise made by those who were removing their goods out of the Conclave. Next morning, "Wednesday, the 10th, the Pope and cardinals entered the chapel an hour before day, according to the regulations; and mass having been read by the Sacristan, all gave their votes open in behalf of the Cardinal of Santa Crocc, who, not to vote for himself, gave his vote for the Cardinal of Naples. After this he was adored by all; and Cardinal Pisani, as senior deacon, went, according to custom, to a window, and said to the people, 'Papam habemus'—his name being Marccllus II., which he bore before, and would by no means change."

Marcellus II. reigned twenty-three days only! Men applied to him the words of Yirgil with reference to another Marcellus, and said that earth not being worthy of him, Heaven had but shown him for a moment to the world! Hoav infinite might not the consequences have been had it been otherwise? He came exactly at the moment when such a man in Peter's seat was most wanted, and when the consequences of its occupation by such an one might have been most momentous. Looking at his character, opinions, and conduct previously to and at the Council of Trent, it is hardly too much to suppose that, had the guidance of the Church remained in his hands as many years, as, from his age, might have been hoped, the divisions which have torn the Church might even then have been healed, and the great schism avoided!

* The "Custode" of the Conclave.

But worn out by previous travels and labours, and called on immediately after his elevation to perform his laborious part of the functions of the Holy Week, which, though suffering much, he would in no degree spare himself, he was attacked by a new access of fever, which assailed him while he was in the act of washing the feet of the thirteen pilgrims according to custom, and put an end to his life, on the twenty-third day of his pontificate, on the 1st of May, 1555, in the fifty-fourth year of Ins life.

CHAPTER III.

The Conclave which elected Paul IV.—Imperialist Party.—Cardinal Pole. — Eesults in practice of the requirement of a two-thirds majority.—Cardinal Carpi excluded by Cardinal D'Este.—Cardinal Morone.—Objections to him.—Cardinal Pozzi.—Management of Farnese.—Election of Paul rV.—Anecdote of the feeling of Home on the occasion.—Character of CarafFa, Paul IV.—Imperial "Veto" disregarded in this election.—Saying of Caraffa respecting his own elevation. — Estimate and description of Paul by the Venetian Ambassador. — Giovanni Angelo Medici: his Family, Brother, Early History. — Character and personal appearance of Medici, Pius IV.—The Inquisition.—Signs of the times.—Practice of giving complimentary votes.—Anecdote of the craft of a Conclavist.— Cardinal Carpi again.—Why he was objectionable to D'Este.— Medici suddenly elected as a pis alter.

The Conclave which elected Paul IV., who ascended the Papal throne as successor of Marcellus on the 23rd of May, 1555, was in fact little other than a continuation of the Conclave which elected his predecessor. The three and twenty days which separated the two were insufficient to have changed any of the conditions or removed any of the difficulties which existed when they were solved by the election of Marcellus. They were increased by the removal of that solution of them. The Imperialist party had made the last Pope, and their authority and influence having naturally been increased by that success, it was supposed that the creation of his successor would lie mainly in their hands. Their party was rendered yet further the more powerful, and had the greater chances of success, in that the most proper

and fitted persons in the College—the most papabili in Conclave slang—belonged to their faction. Eeginald Pole, who had been so nearly elected in the penultimate Conclave, was still a member of the Sacred College. The Cardinals Carpi and Morone were also among the most papabili of the College, and were either of them acceptable to the Imperialists. But Pole had been present on the former occasion, and he was now absent— a very important and significant difference. It was felt, moreover, that the lapse of time that must occur before he could be expected to reach Eome, should he be elected, might be prejudicial to the interests of the Church. As for Carpi, his election was specially objected to by the Cardinal d'Este (Ferrara), the recognised head of the French party. And the fact that this circumstance constrained the Imperialists to pass him over in their plans for filling the Papacy with one of their party is a good illustration of the manner in which party politics worked in the papal elections.

If, indeed, the Imperialist party had been strong enough to elect a candidate of their own without any reference to their adversaries—if, that is to say, they could securely count on constituting a two-thirds majority of the electors—then, of course, none of the considerations in question would have come into play. But this was rarely the case. One party, for instance, might number, say, twenty-eight votes out of forty-five. Their adversaries would have the command of seventeen. Thirty votes are needed to make an election. It is clear that if every man is perfectly true, and all of them perfectly obstinate, no election could ever take place. And

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