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saying, among other things, that for the present he did not choose to be called other than the Archbishop of Bari*

This statement is very important as indicating that Urban VI. was not himself contented with his election, and had doubts as to its validity. It is, at the same time, evidence of the impartial good faith of the conclavist who has preserved the story of the Conclave. Many of the passages which have been quoted, in which he insists upon small facts that go to show that the election was canonical according to the rules, might lead to the suspicion that, writing his account of the election after it had been disputed, he wrote merely as a partisan. But it is impossible to suppose that he could have failed to perceive the very damaging inference to be drawn from the conduct of Urban himself.

The writer goes on to relate that, on the morning after the election, the five cardinals who had remained in their own homes came to the new Pope to congratulate him and implore him to accept his election. They persuaded him also to allow a message to be sent to the six cardinals who were in Castle St. Angelo, requiring them to meet their colleagues, and that the Elected might give his consent to the election made in his person, as is customary. He, however—the new Pope —wishing to be secure in his conscience, asked all* the cardinals, each one separately, whether in truth he was elected Pope, "sincerely, purely, freely, and canonically," by all the cardinals in Conclave. And they replied that -assuredly he was so elected as much as any one could be, persuading him by no means to refuse or delay his assent to his election on account of the danger of a long interregnum3 considering that it would be very difficult for the cardinals to be again assembled together. The cardinals who had remained in St. Angelo, moreover, gave by publicly executed instrument full and free power to the five who were at St. Peter's with the Pope to enthrone him, and do all things that they could by their own presence do. When, however, this instrument was shown to the Senate of Pome and the other officials of the city, they went to Castle St. Angelo, and humbly prayed the cardinals there to come out and join their colleagues at St. Peter's, assuring them that they would be there in a perfectly safe, free, and secure place; and that although they had not chosen a Eoman, yet the Eoman people were contented with the election of the Archbishop of Bari, and were perfectly quiet and peacefully disposed. Thus reassured, the six foreign cardinals came out of the castle and joined the Pope elect and the other five cardinals at St. Peter's; and there the whole eleven together in the chapel, "a second time and for the greater surety," elected the Archbishop Pope, "or purely, freely, agreeingly, and unanimously consented that he should be elected."

* This passage is so important, in view of the disastrous schism which the circumstances of this memorable Conclave led to, that I think it worth while to give the text of the original.

"In crastinum autem de consilio et voluntate Domini Cardinalis Sancti Petri (Orsini) fuit electio Dom. Barensis intimata officialibus Urbis, qui de electione hujus modi remanserunt; et fuerunt valde contenti, et voluerunt accedere et accesserunt Dominum electum ad exhibendum ei reverentiam exhiberi solitam summis Pontificibus; qui noluit sibi talem reverentiam fieri per dictos officialos, nee per alium quempiam, dicendo inter csetera, quod pro nunc nolebat nominari, nisi Archiepiscopus Barensis."

The reader will have remarked the peculiar use of the word " remanserunt." Nobody could understand it who was not familiar with modern Italian colloquialisms—"Io rimango!" "Sono rimastil"("I am amazed!" "They were much astonished!") which may be heard any day in the mouths of Italians. A quaint instance of the persistence of a popular, almost slang, phrase.

* That is, all the five who had come to him. For it appears immediately afterwards that the six who were in St. Angelo did not as yet come out to join their colleagues.

Here again the narrative of the conclavist is very damaging to the cause of Urban VI. It is clear that if he had not been duly, fully, and finally elected in the Conclave, nothing that could be done afterwards could canonically make him Pope. And yet the cardinals by their conduct show that they must have had doubts upon the subject. The eleven constituted, it is true, twothirds of a Conclave consisting of sixteen (if seventeen entered into Conclave the eleven did not make a two-thirds majority); but a canonical election could not be effected by first getting rid of a portion of the electors by means of an erroneous statement that the election was consummated, and then proceeding with the real effective election in their absence. It would seem, indeed, that from the first, the circumstances attending this Conclave did inspire a certain degree of doubt and misgiving in all those who were actors in it. Nevertheless, the sequel of the story, as narrated by the contemporary writer whom I have followed, and who in all probability was, as I have supposed, a conclavist, seems to show that the pretences on which the terrible schism that followed were founded were in truth insincere and merely colourable. My impression, too, from a very careful reading of the narrative, is strongly in favour of the truthfulness and sincerity of the writer.

He goes on to show at great length that every part of the usual ceremony of enthronement, and of the practices that according to custom follow after it, were duly, fully, and undisputedly done and complied with in the presence and with the assent and assistance of all the sixteen cardinals who had taken part in the Conclave,* those who had fled from the city having returned. He proceeds to show that for three months all these cardinals treated Urban as Pope in every respect and particular, no word of doubt having been breathed on the subject. The writer then mentions various papal acts done by Urban, such as holding a Consistory, appointing a Bishop of Ostia, granting graces and dispensations, and some others. But among the things done he tells us that the cardinals wrote letters to the different princes of Christendom, informing them of the election, and warning them to give faith to none who should assert the contrary, or insinuate a doubt as to the election—again a very damaging admission; for certainly such a warning implies, if not that objections to the election had already been put forward, at least a conscious fear that such might be likely to arise.

We soon come, however, to matter that was much worse than simony, or any possible formal objection that could be brought against the election. "One day the Pope, Urban, having summoned all the cardinals, addressed to them many admonitions for the good government of the Church, and respecting their setting a good example to the people. For he warned them to abstain and hold their hands from all gifts, declaring that he detested and would severely punish all guilty of simony,* and all seekers after gain; forbidding them to accept presents either great or small on whatsoever account, as it was his intention that all affairs that came before him should be despatched gratis, no man thence hoping anything. Poor Urban! He was by no means the right man in the right place. One sees in truth that they ought to have chosen a Eoman for the position. He admonished them further as to exemplary living, speaking strongly against superfluous expense, and numerous retinues, and expenditure in horses, garments, and conviviality; asserting that all such pompous and puffed-up ways of living tended to injure rather than support the Church and the Papacy. He said further that it was his intention that justice should be rendered to all seeking it without distinction of persons; and added that since the Divine Providence had placed the Apostolic See in Eome, his purpose was to reside in the city and there to live and die, and he deemed it an offence to God to do otherwise. Here, indeed, were grounds enough for disputing the election! Surely it was clear that this man was not the

* " Cardinalibus omnibus numero xvi. assistentibus, presentibus, et sic fieri volentibus, ipsique Domino Urbano ministrantibus. Omnos enim dicti cardinales numero xvi., qui in electione fuerunt, in hoc Coronationis festo interfuerunt, pureque et libera consenserunt, et quatuor illi cardinales, qui ab urbe recesserant jam fuerant ad urbem roversi, ubi omnes dicti cardinales per tres menses continuos steterunt, ipsi domino Urbano assistendo et ministrando, Concistoria et alia per cardinales summis Pontificibus consueta faciendo . . . et durante tempore dictorum trium mensium dicti D. Cardinales semper tractarunt, et habuerunt Dominum TJrbanum pro vero, unico, et indubitato sumo Pontifice."

* It is fair to observe, inasmuch as I have spoken of the vitiation of Urban's election as simoniacal, that no shadow of such an accusation rests on him. The simony which vitiated the election consisted in tho bargaining among the cardinals which preceded it. In fact but few papal elections, if any, have been other than simoniacal.

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