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The verb may be modified by an adverb, and it can not be modified by any other part of speech.

An adverb may modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

An adverb may be modified by an adverb, but by no other part of speech.

Verbs and nouns are modified ; adjectives and adverbs may modify or be modified.

Exercise 64

Rule a sheet in four columns, heading them noun, adjective, verb, adverb. Classify the italicized words in the following sentences :

I. This long march through the primeval forest and over the rugged and tractless mountains was one of the most remarkable exploits of the war.

2. Dutch cheeses are the favorite relish of English epicures.

3. The defeated candidate will retire into private life. 4.

These prices, as you say, are too high. 5. I intend to begin work tomorrow.

6. I shall be glad to see you whenever you may find time to come.

7. Thoughts do often lie too deep for tears.
8. We now have an especially attractive line of goods.
9.

He breathes freely.
10. These people were treated very badly.

Exercise 65

I.

Use adverbs meaning the same as the phrases in the following:

You must treat him with respect. 2. It is best to be polite at all times. 3. If you behave with propriety, you will merit praise. 4. He came to this place last May. 5. He is too diffident to speak in public. 6. I want him to come at once. 7. The plan was made in secret. 8. He will pay his rent by the year. 9. We deal upon honor with our customers. IO. He finished his task in haste.

II. No written work should be permitted until there has been thorough practice in doing the thing in the mind.

12. It must become a fixed habit with the pupil to do all things with accuracy.

13. It does not take long to become familiar with them in theory.

14. The customer remitted for the bill with promptness. 15. The question may be stated with brevity.

COMPARISON

Adverbs are compared to show different degrees.

A few adverbs are compared by adding er or est to the simple form; as, often, oftener, oftenest.

Some are compared irregularly; as, well, better, best; far, farther, farthest.

Most adverbs are compared by means of more and most, less and least.

PLACING OF ADVERBS

Place the adverb where it will most clearly show the meaning intended.

An adverb naturally follows the verb it modifies unless the verb is followed by a complement or other lengthy modifiers :

They traveled slowly.

They slowly traveled the long and wearisome path up the mountain.

Exercise 66

I.

2.

Put the adverbs in the parentheses in the proper places:

The river. runs its course down the sloping valley (rapidly).

This letter should have been written yesterday (certainly).

3. The rushing, roaring torrent tore down the mountain side (madly).

4. We are now prepared to fill all orders (promptly). 5. I was too much overcome to reply (properly). 6. The prisoner watched the judge's face (anxiously). 7. The man was pleased with his promotion (much). 8. You will have no other opportunity (perhaps). 9. The tunnel extends through the mountain (almost). 10. I expect to test the effects of the drug (thoroughly).

The words only, merely, and also give the most trouble in placing. Sometimes they are adjectives and sometimes adverbs, and their different positions in the sentence convey very different meanings.

Explain the meaning of each of these sentences :
Only I heard him.

I heard him only.
I only heard him.

Exercise 67

I.

Place the words only, merely, and also in these sentences to express the meaning indicated :

I can hope for that (only—can hope and do nothing else).

2. They have been ordered to sell three of them (only —three and no more).

3. The father and the child were saved (only--no one but the father and the child).

4. The French lost many officers (only—the French and no others).

5. I spoke to him (merely-spoke and nothing else).

6. We are following your orders (only—following and nothing else).

7. This firm competed with us (also—this firm as well as others).

8. This firm competed with us (alsowith us as well as with others).

9. They live by hunting and fishing (only—by hunting and fishing and nothing else).

10. We want to do what is right (merely-what is right and nothing else).

Exercise 68

Rewrite the following sentences, placing the italicized adverbs so as to express properly the meaning evidently intended : I. All your neighbors were not invited.

There can not be found one man that is willing to undertake it.

3. The girls were nearly dressed alike.

2.

4. If you have only learned to spend money, you may stay at home.

5. I told him to not go.
6. I take this opportunity to publicly apologize.
7. He moved to indefinitely postpone the subject.
8. He promises to earnestly try to do better.

9. One must understand the forms of a language in order to properly speak it.

10. Do you expect to always have your way in everything?

His experience enables him to quickly discern and fulfill the most exacting requirements of the trade.

The conductor failed to properly protect him. 13. We would thank you to promptly procure for us the original expense-bill.

14. If thou art blessed naturally with a good memory, continually exercise it.

15. You must not expect to find study agreeable always.

II.

12.

CAUTIONS

Participles should never be modified by very or too:
He was much pleased (not very pleased).
He was too much frightened (not too frightened) to speak.

A caution about the spelling of the adverb too is necessary. Remember that this word means also or more than enough:

I, too, will go.
You bought too many goods,

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