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As a general rule, we should avoid closing a sentence with a preposition.

Do not omit prepositions required by the sense.

Exercise 84

Strike out the redundant prepositions and supply omitted prepositions :

I. He met a girl of about ten years of age. 2. Napoleon stood pondering upon what he should do. 3. They went on to the train. 4.

Look out of the door. 5.

A workman fell off of the roof. 6. We must examine into this statement more carefully.

7. That child copies after her teacher. 8. Where is she at? 9. Where are you going to? 10. He is a young man of from twenty to twenty-six years of age.

II. Here, John, smell of this rose.
12. Did you taste of the food ?
13.

What use is it to me? 14. Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as admiration. 15. I admit of what you say. 16. She could not refrain shedding tears.

Exercise 85

REVIEW TEST

Classify the italicized words in the following sentences, arranging the nouns in the first column, adjectives in the second, verbs in the third, adverbs in the fourth, prepositions in the fifth :

1. Sleep not when others speak, sit not when others stand, speak not when you should hold your peace, walk not when others stop.

2. Read no letters, books, or papers in company; but when there is a necessity for doing it, you must ask leave. Come not near the books or writings of anyone so as to read them, unless desired, nor give your opinion of them unasked ; also, look not nigh when another is writing a letter.

3. Let your discourse with men of business be short and comprehensive.

4. Undertake not to teach your equal in the art he himself professes: it savors of arrogancy.

5. Play not the peacock, looking everywhere about you to see if you be well decked, if your shoes fit well, if your stockings fit neatly, and clothes handsomely. 6. Go not thither where you know not whether you

shall be welcome or not. Give not advice without being asked, and when desired, do it briefly.

7. Think before you speak; pronounce not imperfectly, nor bring out your words too hastily, but orderly and distinctly.

8. Undertake not what you can not perform, but be careful to keep your promise.

9. When you speak of God or his attributes, let it be seriously, in reverence. Honor and obey your natural parents, although they be poor.

CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses.

EXAMPLES

Connecting words:
Mercy and truth have met together.
Time and tide wait for no man.
Silver and gold are precious metals.
The children will laugh and play.
Connecting phrases:
They passed through the door and across the room.
We walked through the park and across the bridge.

Dispatches were received from Chicago and from New
York.

There they dwelt in the love of God and of man.
These are the laws of nature and of nature's God.
Connecting clauses :
You must return the book or I shall lose the lesson.
Courage is admirable, but patience is powerful.
I shall go unless you object.
Flowers bloom when spring comes.
I would tell who did it if I knew.
The following are the principal coordinate conjunctions :

And, both, but, either-or, neither, also, likewise, as well as, not only—but, partly, first, secondly, moreover, now, well, else, otherwise, still, yet, further, notwithstanding, however, therefore, wherefore, hence, whence, consequently,

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nor, accordingly, thus, so, so that, so then, nevertheless, either, neither-nor, or, whether-or, besides, both-and.

The following are the principal subordinate conjunctions:

Notwithstanding, albeit, in order that, lest, in case that, on condition that, ere, till, while, whether-or, until, as soon as, supposing, otherwise, since, though, that, than, unless, whether, so that, before, after, whereas, as, although, because, except, for, if, inasmuch as, provided.

CONJUNCTION AND PREPOSITION

The difference between a conjunction and a preposition should be studied carefully.

A conjunction merely connects words, phrases, or clauses, while a preposition connects a noun or pronoun to some other word and shows the relation between them.

Compare the following examples:

Prepositions He will spend the winter in Rome.

I am very fond of music.

Conjunctions Carthage and Rome were rival powers.

He is studying history and music.

The commissioner will inspect the street and alley.

The child tries to do things as his father does them.

One can not expect to learn grammar unless one studies it diligently.

The man walked in the street.

The child looks very much like his father.

John is fond of all his studies except grammar.

PHRASES AND CLAUSES

A phrase is a group of closely connected words that does not contain a subject and predicate. Phrases are introduced by prepositions (also participles and infinitives).

A clause is a part of a sentence which does contain a subject and a predicate. Clauses are connected by conjunctions.

A clause contains a verb; a phrase does not.

A clause (independent) makes sense in itself; a phrase asserts nothing :

Clauses

Phrases The walls are high, and the He stood on the bridge. shores are deep.

Every day is a little life 'Twas the night before and our whole life is but a Christmas. day repeated.

The ravine was full of snow, The tree was struck by but it had once been full of lightning. water.

The harvest truly is plen- He died for his country. teous, but the laborers are few.

I shall not remain here The eyes of the sleepers longer, for the climate is in- waxed deadly and chill. jurious to my health.

Exercise 86

Point out prepositions and conjunctions. Name the objects and antecedents of prepositions. Tell what the conjunctions connect:

I. She gave me of the tree and I did eat.
2. Put it on the table or into your pocket.

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