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7. By what may a verb be modified ? 8. May a verb be used as a modifier ?

9. Explain difference between action verbs and copulative verbs.

10. Explain correct use of "good" and "well."

Correct errors :

2.

I. There is no two of them exactly alike.

Can I leave my seat for a few minutes ? 3. Is there anyone in the class that don't understand it?

4. We don't want no loafers here.
5. Wasn't you real glad to get home?
6. He don't seem to bowl as good as he used to.
7. They seem to me to be nearly dressed alike.
8. What did he say the name of this station was?
9. What have you got in your hand?
10. I meant to have written it this morning.

I intended to have insisted on this sympathy at greater length.

12. I have just explained to the class how to work those sort of questions.

13. Boys like you and he ought to be ashamed to behave so bad in church.

14. Such prices are only paid in times of great scarcity. 15. If I was in his place I would be glad to get rid of it. 16. Be sure to let me know if the water raises any higher. 17. This cake tastes quite nicely after all, don't it? 18. I worked steady at my trade for two years.

19. Who was it that was talking so loud in the next room?

20. He seemed to thoroughly understand the subject.

PREPOSITIONS

A preposition is a word used to connect a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence and to show the relation between them :

John is under the wagon.
James is in the wagon.
Carl is beside the wagon.
Charles is on the wagon.
Tom is behind the wagon.

A preposition is not quite so distinctly definable as the other parts of speech. It will be best understood by closely observing the illustrations here given, using the commonest words of the class.

Usually a preposition is followed by a noun or pronoun, and this following noun or pronoun is called its object.

The group of words formed by a preposition and its object is called a phrase. Under wagon, in wagon, beside wagon, on wagon, behind wagon, are phrases.

The word with which the noun or pronoun is brought into relation by the preposition is called its antecedent.

To determine the object of a preposition, ask what? or whom? after the preposition. The correct answer is the object; as, in the first example above, Under what? Under the wagon.

To determine the antecedent, ask who? or, what? before the phrase; as, What under the wagon ? Is under the wagon.

Apply this to the following examples :
The antecedent may be a verb; as,
He went with us.

It fell through the air to the ground.
Put it on the table.
They stayed under the shelter.
An adjective; as,
Good for nothing

Free from dirt
Hoary with age

Prized above measure
An adverb; as,
Sufficiently for my purpose
Another noun or pronoun; as,
A box of wood

The top of the house
A ring for the finger

Doors with hinges Pins without heads

Souls above deceit The following are the propositions most commonly used :

At, by, of, in, on, to, up, off, for, but, down, from, into, over, past, save, till, upon, with, about, above, after, along, among, below, since, under, across, before, behind, beyond, during, except, toward, within, without, around, besides, between, through, against, regarding, concerning, respecting, underneath, throughout, beneath.

Phrase prepositions :

As to, as for, as regards, along on, aboard of, apart from, by way of, contrary to, devoid of, from out, from beyond, instead of, in place of, in regard to, in reference to, on account of, to the extent of, with respect to.

Exercise 78

Point out prepositions, their objects, and antecedents in the following:

1. The bright stars twinkle in the sky.

2. The boy ran after the ball.
3.
We
go

to school.
4. She stays at home.
5. The smoke rises in the air from the chimney.
6. The leaf fell from the tree to the ground.
7. The night is dark with clouds.
8. He rides on his horse.

A hot fire of coals is burning. 10. The dogs barked loudly in the distant village. II. A clock of wood ticked on the wall. 12. The clouds are heavy with rain. 13. The winds of winter are cold.

PHRASES

A phrase is a group of words that does not contain a subject and a predicate, and that is used as a single part of speech.

A phrase formed by a preposition and its object is called a prepositional phrase. Each of the groups in Exercise 78 is a prepositional phrase.

A prepositional phrase may be used as,

I. An adjective modifier; as, A thing of beauty is a joy forever. Of beauty is an adjective phrase modifying thing.

An adverbial modifier; as, The ship sailed over the
Over the sea is an adverbial phrase modifying sailed.

2.

sea.

Exercise 79

Divide a sheet of paper into two columns. Point out the phrases and tell what each modifies, copying the phrases in the second column and the words modified in the first:

I. A host of Indian warriors rushed across the plain.

2...The melodious notes of the organ were heard through the aisles of the cathedral.

3. The love of money is the root of all evil.

4. The deep cave on the hillside was long the secret home of a family of foxes.

5. We gazed with inexpressible pleasure on those happy islands.

6. The man with the black coat fell from the top of the wall.

7. He is an honest man.
8. The laws of nature are the thoughts of God.
9. The flowers in the garden are fragrant.

10. The beautiful prospects of nature always excite the warmest admiration of mankind.

II. Both men are worthy of the position.

12. Wild flowers of many different kinds grow in abundance in the woods.

13. We moved along silently and with caution.

14. A single grateful thought toward heaven is the most complete prayer.

15. The widest excursions of the mind are made by short flights.

16. He is the best speller in the class.

17. The actions of men are the best interpreters of their thoughts.

18. The doorstep to the temple of wisdom is the knowledge of our own ignorance.

19. The winter palace of the czar of Russia is lighted by twelve thousand electric lamps.

20. The march of the human mind is slow. 21. Eloquence is a painting of the thoughts.

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