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have relied upon the same far as it operates upon style. In no

matter—the facts, for instan country upon earth, were it possible

slave-trade--and one has turn to carry such a maxim into practical effect, is it a more determinate ten such good account by his dency of the national mind to value ments, by his modes of vivi the matter of a book not only as statements, by his arts of ill paramount to the manner, but even as by his science of connectin distinct from it, and as capable of a se

with human feeling, that he

his hearers in convulsions of parate insulation. What first gave a shock to such a tendency must have whilst the other shall have u been the unwilling and mysterious tittle of the same matter with sense—that in some cases, the matter ing one scintillation of sy and the manner were so inextricably without leaving behind one interwoven, as not to admit of this impression in the memory, on coarse bisection. The one was em one murmur in the heart. bedded, entangled, and interfased In proportion, therefore through the other in a way which bade English people have been defiance to such gross mechanical two centuries and a quar separations. But the tendency to since the latter decennium of view the two elements as in a separa. First's reign) under a constble relation still predominates ; and, rience of popular eloquene as a consequence, the tendency to into all channels of social undervalue the accomplishment of must have had peculiar op style. Do we mean that the English, feel the effects of style. B as a literary nation, are practically is not to feel consciously. less sensible of the effects of a man is charmed by one c beautiful style ? Not at all. Nobody ascribes the effect to another can be insensible to these effects. a man is fascinated by the a And, upon a known fact of history, composition, who fancies tha viz., the exclusive cultivation of po. subject which has operated pular oratory in England throughout ly. And even for the s ihe 17th and 18th centuries, we might pbilosophers who keeps in presume a peculiar and exalted sense interpenetration of the styl of style amongst ourselves. Until matter, it would be as diffic the French Revolution, no nation of tribute the true proportion Christendom except England had any joint action, as, with regard practical experience of popular rheto- liest rays of the dawn, it w ric; any deliberative eloquence, for say how much of the beauty instance ; any forensic eloquence that heavenly light which chased was made public; any democratic elo- darkness--how much in th. quence of the hustings; or any form lour which that light entang whatever of public rhetoric beyond Easily, therefore, it may that of the pulpit. Through two cen. pened, that, under the const turies at least, no nation could have and practical effects of styl. been so constantly reminded of the may have failed to notice th powers for good and evil which belong the cause. And, besides t to style. Often it must have happena ing forces which mislead the ed, to the mortification or joy of mul of the auditor in such a case titudes, that one man out of windy other disturbing forces whi nothings has constructed an over the practice of the speaker whelming appeal to the passions of his good rhetoric for the husti hearers, whilst another has thrown is bad for a book, away the weightiest cause by his man.

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highest forms of popular ner of treating it. Neither let it be the laws of style vary muc said, that this might not arise from general standard. In the s differences of style, but because the for the same reason in a r triumphant demagogue made use of it is a virtue to reiterate y fictions, and, therefore, that his tri. ing : tautology becomes a umph was still obtained by means of riation of the words, with a bis matter, however hollow that mat- identity of the sense and ter might have proved upon investiga- the truth, is oftentimes a ne tion. That case, also, is a possible case ; but often enough two orators

ce which belongs to an infir- through subtle variations that someher than an error of the will, times aisguise the theme, sometimes ashamed for the obstinate ob- fitfully reveal it, sometimes throw it

of our country in regard to out tumultuously to the daylight,the most effective of the Fine these and ten thousand forms of selfIt will be understood that we conflicting musical passion—what - music. In painting and in room could they find, what opening, e it is now past disputing, that for utterance in so limited a field as

destined to inferiority at all, an air or song? A hunting.box, a Enferiority only to the Italians park-lodge, may have a forest grace ancient Greeks; an inferiority and the beauty of appropriateness ; f it were even sure to be per. but what if a man should match such we share with all the other a bauble against the Pantheon, or s nations around us. On that against the minsters of York and

are safe. And in the most Strasburg ? A repartee may by acciof the Fine Arts, in poetry, we dent be practically effective: it has

ear and vast pre-eminence as been known to crush a party-scheme, all nations; no nation but our- and an oration of Cicero's, or of ving equally succeeded in both Burke's, could have done no more : the higher poetry, epic and but what judgment would match the Whilst of meditative or phi- two against each other as developments

poetry (Young's, Cowper's, of power ? Let him who finds the orth's,)—to say nothing of maximum of his musical gratification e may affirm what Quinc. in a song, be assured, by that one fact, #ys justly of Roman satire, that his sensibility is rude and undeedem nostra est." If, there. veloped. Yet exactly upon this level every mode of composition is the ordinary state of musical feeling which the impassioned mind throughout Great Britain ; and the nation bas excelled its rivals, howling wilderness of the psalmody t be allowed to suppose any in most parish churches of the land, efect of sensibility as a cause countersigns the statement. There is, ness with regard to music. however, accumulated in London, however, is the grandeur of more musical science than in any cae art suspected amongst us pital of the world. This, gradually

that a man will write an diffused, will improve the feeling of iberately for the purpose of the country. And, if it should fail to n record his own preference do so, in the worst case we have the to the most elaborate music satisfaction of knowing, through Jean : he will glory in his shame; Jacques Rousseau, and by later evigh speaking in the character dences, that sink as we may below nfessing to a weakness, will Italy and Germany in the sensibility view himself in the light of to this divine art, we cannot go lower man, laying bare a state of than France. Here, however, and in hich is natural and sound, this cherished obtuseness as to a plea. o a class of false pretenders sure so important for human life, and st servile to rules of artists, at the head of the physico-intellectual contradict their own musical pleasures, we find a second reason for and feel little or nothing of quarrelling with the civilisation of our

profess. Strange that even country. At the summit of civilisation y of other arts should not in other points, she is here yet unyes to the delusion he is en- cultivated and savage. ! A song-an air--a tune, A third point is larger. Here (prohort succession of notes re- perly speaking) our quarrel is co-ex

pidly upon itself, how could tensive with that general principle in ossibility offer a field of com. England which tends in all things to cient for the development of set the matter above the manner, the sical effects? The prepara. substance above the external show; nant with the future, the re a principle noble in itself, but inevi. respondence, the questions, tably wrong wherever the manner e, which to a deep musical blends inseparably with the substance,

asked in one passage, and This general tendency operates in in another; the iteration and many ways: but our own immediate

man who should content hi a single condensed enunc

ion of a given effect, moving purpose is concerned with it only so

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far as it operates upon style. In no have relied upon the same identical country upon earth, were it possible matter the facts, for instance, of the to carry such a maxim into practical slave-trade--and one has turned this to effect, is it a more determinate ten- such good account by his arrangedency of the national mind to value ments, by his modes of vivifying dry the matter of a book not only as statements, by his arts of illustration, paramount to the manner, but even as by his science of connecting things distinct from it, and as capable of a se with human feeling, that he has left parate insulation. What first gave a his hearers in convulsions of passion ; shock to such a tendency must have whilst the other shall have used every been the unwilling and mysterious tittle of the same matter without elicit sense that in some cases, the matter ing one scintillation of sympathy, and the manner were so inextricably without leaving behind one distinct interwoven, as not to admit of this impression in the memory, or planting coarse bisection. The one was em one murmur in the heart. bedded, entangled, and interfused in proportion, therefore, as the through the other in a way which bade English people have been placed for defiance to such gross mechanical two centuries and a quarter (i. e. separations. But the tendency to since the latter decennium of James the view the two elements as in a separa. First's reign) under a constant expeble relation still predominates; and, rience of popular eloquence thrown as a consequence, the tendency to into all channels of social life, they undervalue the accomplishment of must have had peculiar occasion to style. Do we mean that the English, feel the effects of style. But to feel as a literary nation, are practically is not to feel consciously. Many a less sensible of the effects of a man is charmed by one cause who beautiful style? Not at all. Nobody ascribes the effect to another. Many can be insensible to these effects. a man is fascinated by the artifices of And, upon a known fact of history, composition, who fancies that it is the viz., the exclusive cultivation of po. subject which has operated so potentpular oratory in England throughout ly. And even for the subtlest of che 17th and 18th centuries, we might philosophers who keeps in mind the presume a peculiar and exalted sense interpenetration of the style and the of style amongst ourselves. Until matter, it would be as difficult to disthe French Revolution, no nation of tribute the true proportion of their Christendom except England had any joint action, as, with regard to the earpractical experience of popular rheto- liest rays of the dawn, it would be to rie; any deliberative eloquence, for say how much of the beauty lay in the instance ; any forensic eloquence that heavenly light which chased away the was made public; any democratic elo- darkness—how much in the rosy coquence of the hustings; or any form lour which that light entangled. whatever of public rhetoric beyond Easily, therefore, it may have hapthat of the pulpit. Through two cen- pened, that, under the constant action turies at least, no nation could have and practical effects of style, a nation been so constantly reminded of the may have failed to notice the cause as powers for good and evil which belong the cause. And, besides the disturbto style. Often it must have happen ing forces which mislead the judgment ed, to the mortification or joy of mul of the auditor in such a case, there are titudes, that one man out of windy other disturbing forces which modify nothings has constructed an over- the practice of the speaker. That is whelming appeal to the passions of his good rhetoric for the hustings which hearers, whilst another has thrown is bad for a book. Even for the away the weightiest cause by his man highest forms of popular eloquence, per of treating it. Neither let it be the laws of style vary much from the said, that this might not arise from general standard. In the senate, and differences of style, but because the for the same reason in a newspaper, triumphant demagogue made use of it is a virtue to reiterate your meanfictions, and, therefore, that his tri. ing : tautology becomes a merit: va. umph was still obtained by means of riation of the words, with a substantial his matter, however hollow that mat identity of the sense and dilution of ter might have proved upon investiga- the truth, is oftentimes a necessity. A tion. That case, also, is a possible man who should content himself with case ; but often enough two orators a single condensed enunciation of a

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