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pride, he had enthroned it here; but given to the house to perform this his pride was a part of him. Driven out act of justice, to make it indeed comforcibly from one palace, it had a sure plete; for the bigotry, here engendered, refuge in himself. Nothing, no out- was here put down under James ward act of malice or tyranny could rob I. For at this very palace was the the world's history of Wolsey. He conference held, the blessed effects of knew it, and even in his fall was which were found in the improved greatest. This noble fabric of Hamp- translation of the Holy Scriptures, at ton Court was, however, readily re- which conference James uttered the signed by Wolsey into the king's hands, grave aphorism, “No bishop, no king." who afterwards seized, too, bis palace Hampton Court now becomes interestafterwards called Whitehall. It is a ing to us, having witnessed Charles curious fact, and one that marks a I.'s happiness and his misfortunes. visible retribution upon things, names, It was the scene of his bappiest days, and persons, whereby a sort of moral for here he, too, passed his honeyhistory of the world is written by a moon; and of his worst, for it was his Divine band, and carried on in con- prison. Poor King Charles! It was tinuance by striking incidents—it is a to bis taste and love for the arts that curious fact that these two palaces of Hampton Court owes its present glory Wolsey, as they are monuments of the Cartoons of Raffaele. They the rapine of royalty, so are they of alone make up to us for all the archithe humiliation of royalty. We see tectural diminution this fine palace has the crime, the penance, and the punish- suffered. These cartoons were purment; and we must regard rather the chased at the recommendation of Ru. official than the personal characters bens. They had been cut into slips, of the agents and sufferers. The facts for the purpose of making tapestry and places must have, and suffer the from them; and we must not omit our consequences. It is the tale of Naboth's gratitude to William III., who had vineyard. These two palaces, plunder them carefully attended to, put them on ed by the royal hand, were, in their frames, and built the gallery for their due time, one the prison, the other the reception. Hampton Court owes its -place of execution of royalty. Wretch- present appearance to William III. ed, unfortunate Charles ! who can visit The alterations by Sir Christopher Hampton Court and not think of him, Wren are easily distinguished from and detest his brutal persecutors ? the original buildings of Wolsey. Yet there is intermediate interesting The public are now indebted to him matter for reflection that may not be more for the Dutch style of the garentirely passed over. The amiable, dens than for some of the ornaments excellent Edward, VI. resided here, of the palace. It was the residence of and yet, as if the guilty punish- Queen Anne-the scene of Pope's ment of the house began early, not Rape of the Lock. Courts were occa. without fear of having his person sionally held here by George I. and seized, the short-lived successor of George II. ; and Frederick, Prince of the rapacious Henry. Then fol- of Wales, afterwards occupied it. lows the inauspicious honey-moon of Since then it has been appropriated, Queen Mary and Philip of Spain in apartments, to various persons. which was passed in this palace; then But the mind naturally reverts to the indeed the evil and prophetic spirit of misfortunes of Charles. Here was he the house might have uttered their a prisoner of Parliament, in the very epithalamium in the words of Cas- scene of his former happiness, that he sandra the doomed.
had adorned with pictures worthy the Φόνον δόμοι πνέουσιν αιματοσταγή. .
taste of a king ; and what became of
the majority of them ?— Sold by the Unhappy nuptials! from which, in tasteless republicans, and dispersed the place of other offspring, was be- throughout the courts of Europe, and gotten the furious bigotry that deluged many destroyed-even the most sathe land with blood-the blood of cred subjects torn down, or defaced, in saints and martyrs. But for this sour relentless bigotry, which then, retribution on the Papal bigots was as a general disease, infected men's at hand. Protestantism triumphed in minds; and, however mitigated, the the succeeding reign; and here Eliza« disease has never been eradicated, and beth held her festivities. A respite is occasionally breaks forth, even now,
with more or less strength. The and who really, as we believe they do, king-killing, picture destroying, taste wish to cater for the taste of the public, despising, virulent faction is still in to the state, and condition, and hangexistence; and had they full play, the ing of the pictures at Hampton Court. results would be the same. King There is unquestionably a great deal James's aphorism is for all ages, “ No of trash, mere rubbish, and no little bishop, no king." There were multi- of this cast that occupies a large space. tudes rife for the full mischief, when, But we could not help thinking that under the Reform mania, they would there are, or might be, some really have murdered the bishop at Bristol ; fine things so placed as to be lost. did mutilate and burn the Bible ; set Perhaps this is more the case with the fire to the bishop's palace and the portraits than with other subjects. cathedral, and were ready to march to We do not despise ornamental paintLondon to dethrone the king. No ing when it affects nothing beyond man, with the slightest pretensions to ornament. It is generally disgusting taste, or indeed to any true feeling, when it assumes subject, and conspi. can pardon the atrocious acts of the cuous folly when it plays vagaries in Puritans, which have retarded to this allegory. Allegory, in fact, has been day the cultivation of the arts intro. an incubus upon art and poetry. duced into this country and fostered However Spencer and Rubens may by the first Charles. Go where we have given it an eclat by their genius, will, we see still their mutilations, their we cannot but perceive that it was a barbarities, monuments of their hypo. clog upon their powers--but in bad crisy and infamy: and we see worse hands what does it become? An insi. monuments in the characters of their pid, senseless display of pictorial or descendants. The bistorical events poetical riddles not worth solving. It that offer themselves so readily to the is the handiwork, at best, of a smart mind, upon a visit to Hampton Court, intelligence without feeling. That are of themselves sufficient for many presuming allegory should show its a day's speculation ; and the extremely barefaced audacity in a palace sancvaluable and curious portraits give an tified by the cartoons, is to be lamentidentity to such speculations that can ed—but more glaringly absurd allescarcely be obtained elsewhere. We gories than those large performances could not help smiling, however, at on the staircases and ceilings at Hampthe whimsical notice with regard to ton Court, were never perpetrated. the Portrait Gallery, which we found But we admire, how it could ever enin our amusing and useful guide-book, ter into the brain of mortal man to to this effect, “ There are several twist the grave buffooneries of the interesting and curious portraits in heathen gods and goddesses into a this room, that are unknown." Our courtly flatterly of modern priaces. object in visiting Hampton Court was On entering a gallery of allegory, not to make historical speculations, the visiter should be forewarned that but to see the pictures; and we hope he is expected to lay aside his comwe have not wandered too far from
Never was there such our purpose. In fact, we consider confusion of allegorical personages as some such preface is necessary; that figure on the walls of The King's something of the history of the Grand Staircase"-painted by Verrio. place, its founder, and its inhabitants. It is quite after the fashion of the demust be known and felt before any scription in the Groves of Blarneyperson can fully enjoy the works of art at Hampton Court. For ourselves,
“ Julius Cæsar, had we confined our views to the mere
And Nebuchadnezzar, &c., pictures, we should not have written
All standing naked in the open air.” at all; for we do not presume, in a few Verrio was an ass, as a wholesale hours, to have been able to have form- manufacturer of fulsome allegories ed a correct judgment, where there is
must needs be. He was the man that so much to see, and much so arranged introduced himself and Sir Godfrey as not to be very visible. We write, Kneller, in long periwigs, as spectatherefore, mostly with the hope that tors of our Saviour Healing the Sick. these remarks, through Maga, may What hole of mythology has he left direct the public attention, or the at unransacked for ornamenting this tention of those whose business it is, staircase? It is “ Allegory at Home,”
or a fancy-ball given by Folly and with him. Would we wish to see Flattery jointly to Heathenism. Here these allegories destroyed ? It is a are Apollo, the Muses, and Pan and puzzle. They contain, some of them Ceres, and Thames and Isis, and at least, portraits and are, therefore, Flora and Ganymede, Juno and her curiosities. It is to be lamented, then, Peacock, the Fatal Sisters and Jupi. that they are so large-the staircaso ter. The Signs of the Zodiac, the walls, we protest, would look better Zephyrs and Destiny, and Venus with whitewashed than as they are. But her legs upon a Swan, and Venus and we fear, were we called upon to de. Mars her lover. Pluto, Proserpine, cide, it would be that they remainCælus and Terra, Neptune and Am- for the precedent of destruction is a phitrite, Bacchus, Silenus, Diana, and bad one ; and there are who may take Romulus and his Wolf. Herccules a fancy to have their fling at the car. Peace, Æneas, and the Twelve Cæsars, toons. It is, perhaps, fortunate that and the Genius of Rome; and (we those noble efforts of the mature gemust suppose, not in compliment to nius of Raffaele were not set up in the Christian religion) Julian the their present state, when by an ordiApostate writing at a Table, with nance of parliament, “ Sir Robert Har. Mercury the God of Eloquence at low, 1645, gave order for the putting tending upon him. But if the king's down and demolishing of the Popish grand staircase is shocking, there is a and superstitious pictures in Hampton very proper matrimonial agreement Court, where this day the altar was between that and the queen's; for that taken down, and the table brought inblockhead Kent was allowed to daub to the body of the church ; tho rails the ceiling, and Vick to perpetrate the pulled down, and the steps levelled ; great picture upon the wall represent- and the Popish pictures and superstiing the Duke of Buckingham as tious images that were in the glass Science, in the habit of Mercury, in- windows were also demolished; and troducing the Arts and Sciences (that order given for the new glazing them is, duplicates of himself) to Charles with plain glass; and, among the II. and his queen. Was there in those rest, there was pulled down the pic. days no lunatic asylum to have pro- ture of Christ nailed to the Cross, vided a “ Custos virorum mercurial, which was placed right over the altar; ium ?" But we must confess, that of and the pictures of Mary Magdalen all these vile perpetrations, Verrio's and others weeping by the foot of the are the best-we trouble not ourselves cross; and some other such idolatrous about the designs of any of them-but pictures were pulled down and demoVerrio's keep up the ornamental in- lished.” We extract this from Jesse's tention best. They are light and gay little, useful, and amusing volume, in colour, and are at once both rich “ Hampton Court," which, as a guide, enough and weak enough to set off judiciously contains much information the more solid furniture. Some are which a visiter would wish to refresh dingy and heavy; and to bave allego- his memory with, and to which we ries ready to drop en masse as a dead stand indebted for this and other mat. weight, and overwhelm the spectator ters. He took the above passage from and his ideas, and bury him under a weekly paper of that date, 1645. Titans of brown umber, is a sad check The Parliamentary Commissioners, to upon a lively imagination. The “ First the disgrace of the country, sold the Presence Chamber," too, presents us treasures of art collected by the first with a big allegory, 18 feet by 15– Charles, and among them the nine William III. on horseback, in armour, pictures in distemper “ the Triumphs and with a helmet that Mercury and of Julius Cæsar," by Andrea MantegPeace think it necessary to support, Da. They at that time sold for a thoudecorated with laurel—and Neptune sand pounds, and were repurchased, with his attendants by the side of a at the Restoration, by Charles II., and rock acting master of the ceremonies are now in Hampton Court.
We do villanously-wbile Plenty and Flora not pretend to offer any detailed ac. present flowers ; for all which, King count of these admirable designs : they William would have done well, had require much time to study them. We such a happy invention been then in should be glad to learn if they have existence, to have sent Sir Godfrey ever been engraved. Andrea Manteg. Kneller to the treadmill, and Flora na was a great master of design: his NO, CCCII, VOL. XLVIII,
engravings are very scarce, and very manner-a gentilezza. Self-will had valuable, some being subjects from not yet overcome the submission of Raffaele. He has been thought to her mind. Power had not enthroned have been the inventor of engraving, the “ glorious Gloriana." But, from Nor shall we attempt to say much of this maiden age, there is not a portrait the cartoons, which, though they have of Queen Elizabeth that is not hideous. been so often described, may yet be The most unaccountably whimsical is critically examined, both with regard that of Queen Elizabeth, in a fantastic to their effect on the general spectator, dress, by F. Zucchero. It is as inex. and with regard to the rules and prin. plicable in its hieroglyphic as it is ciples of art employed in, and to be ugly in dress, and strange in every discoverable from them. This, as well accompaniment. It is said that the as a particular account of the pictures Queen would not allow her face to throughout the palace, we hope to have any shadow, whether from igno. make the work of some future day. rance of art, or from a conceit partly But we earnestly recommend Mr Bur- belonging to herself, and partly the nett, who is now bringing out the car fault of that age of fulsome flattery, toons in a new and most effective man. so that here all the shadow is in the ner, (and, we are happy to add, at a very back ground. She is supposed to be low price),' to write a small treatise in a forest, a stag behind her, and a upon them to accompany his plates. tree on which are inscribed mottoes, His great knowledge of all the details the meaning of which is past conjecof art, and his judgment and feeling ture ; her dress would disgrace a for the great master, particularly quali- Kamschatkan milliner. On a scroll fy him for the work. We had in are some verses, by some supposed to tended, when we began this paper, to be her own, and by some to have been have extracted from our note-book from the pen of Spencer; we should our remarks upon the pictures in Hamp- acquit the latter of unintelligibility. ton Court ; but, upon reflection, think The picture of the Queen, allegoriit better, on some future occasion, to cally treated by Lucas de Heere, is examine them more closely; and we extremely curious ; but, for some spedo hope that the good will be, by a cimens of this kind, we could scarcely discreet hand, separated from the rub. credit the fulsome allegory of those bish. Many, too many, by far the days-allegory that wellnigh quenchgreater number, are worthless-injure ed the fire of genius, not that we mean those those that are good, as evil com to speak of the
genius of De Heere. Alpany is apt to do; and surely nothing legory was then the court etiquette ; little or contemptible should be suffered in language and in art it was the veil in a palace originally erected by Wol. between majesty unapproachable and sey, and rich in associations of what her people. In language, it had its is great, and what is important in his- ameliorating and courtly use, when tory. So should all the unauthenti- modified by genius and a love of truth; cated portraits be removed. Where and perhaps even the wonderful power there are so many undoubtedly ge- and fascination of the language of nnine, it is a pity that a doubt should Shakspeare may be not a little in. arise. There should be a delightful debted to this faulty source. But this confidence in such a portrait gallery ; only obiter, we fear getting out of our that the vision, the waking dream of depth, and so return to this picture of olden times, should pass before the Lucas de Heere. It represents the mind, or linger where desired, with sudden appearance of Queen Elizabeth the most complete power and true en- before Juno, Pallas, and Venus. Queenchantment. The faithfulness of Hol. ly is the step of the terrestrial majesty. bein should have nothing that is false Juno is in the act of retreating ; Pallas near it. We are sure of the truth in is in utter astonishment, and Venus Holbein's Queen Elizabeth, when blushes at being overcome in beauty. young, probably thirteen or fourteen The goddesses forget their own disyears of age. It is the only portrait cord, each conscious that Queen Eliof the great maiden queen that is zabeth alone would have been worthy pleasing. The countenance is very in- the golden apple. Now the wonder is teresting, even pretty ; the figure that Elizabeth herself did not start graceful; and with the countenance aghast at the ugliness of the picture, expressive of a sweet simplicity of and particularly of the representation
of herself; and yet her two attendants Mrs Jameson, that we can only refer have grace; but the ingenuity of the to her book. We believe that, Besides painter in this is admirable ; for, as he portraits, there are some very excel could not preserve the queen's like- Jent pictures at Hampton Court; but, ness, and give beauty at the same placed as they are, they do not tell time, he makes her the standard of their own story. They are in a wretchbeauty, by representing Venus as ed state. We could have wished, for much like her as possible, preserving the sake of art, that would not be connevertheless, a very manifest inferio- spicuous in her defects, that Mr West rity on the part of the goddess. had been a miniature painter. He
The following Latin lines beneath occupies far too much space, considerdescribe the picture :
ing that he has not dignified what he & Juno potens sceptris, et mentis acumine
has occupied; and bis works are a
satire upon the taste and patronage of Pallas,
good old George III. *There has Et roseo Veneris fulget in ore decus. Adfuit Elizabeth, Juno perculsa refugit,
been an attempt made, and is not yet Obstupuit Pallas erubuitque Venus."
altogether relinquished, to have the
cartoons removed to the National It is scarcely fair to poor De Heere Gallery, or to some National Gallery to place this his picture directly under within the city smoke. If there is Holbein's Queen Elizabeth when danger of injury thereby, as some say young. It has been asserted, that there is, who would wish the removal? there is no undoubted portrait of Mary and why rob Hampton Court of its Queen of Scots. What is, then, to be greatest treasure ; and surely now it said of this by Janette. It is exqui- is accessible enough? We fear they sitely beautiful, and, in style of art, must suffer deterioration where they surpassed only by Raffaele. It is are, thcir surfaces being exposed to like both Raffaele's and Holbein's the atmosphere. We should think no portraits. It bears a “royal presence" cost too great to put glass before them, and sweetness : as a picture, it has if, at the same time, they could be so wonderful grace, and truth, and power. placed as to be well scen. The first
There are several others by this master, ihing to consider is their preservation. and all of them strikingly good. The It is said, too, others of the set are historical portraits of this period are extant; if it be the case, surely they most interesting ; few before that shonld be secured to the nation. time can be relied upon; but here we This is a slight notice of Hampton find the satisfactory attestation of Hol- Court; but if it be allowed to be a bein and Janette. After that, art
precursor to more detailed observa. dwindled, and nearly sunkunder tions, and may attract the attention of senseless allegory, and has little to those concerned in these matters to a attract till we come to the beauties of careful scrutiny of the pictures, we Charles II.'s reign. These are so
may have our pleasure, not without well known, and all that can be said some public profit. about them has been so well said by
One of the most favourite occupations of the Spanish mountaineer, is the irregular trade which is carried on along the whole frontier, from Biscay to Catalonia, and, in general, round the whole circuit of Spain. The almost total want of manufactures in the country, and the vexatious and barbarian nature of the prohibitory laws, engender the appetite for foreign luxuries. The smugs glers have thus for ages constituted a very numerous, active, and even prosperous body in Spain; and, in fact, are the depositaries not only of a large portion of the national wealth, but of such virtues as have survived the national degeneracy. They are brave, industrious, and patriotic; and in the French war formed some of the most gallant defenders of their country. Their superior general intelligence, their knowledge of French, their practice in the use of arms, and their habits of combination, made them singularly dangerous to the enemy; and some of the most extraordinary achievements of the Guerillas were said to be due to the roving but vigorous spirit of the “ Contrabandista.".