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" 28th March.

darted flame, when every heart In the following letter, Förster beat heroism. The oath solemnly re- describes the entry of the Prussians peated by all, and sworn on the and Russians into Dresden, and inswords of the officers, and Luther's dulges in a few severe remarks on hymn, 'Eine feste burg ist unser Gott,' the French policy of the King of made the conclusion of the solemn Saxony :ceremony; and the whole was crowned by a thundering vivat from the congregation of champions for German Hoch lebe Borussia! The Bran. freedom, while every blade leapt from denburger issars, Blücher's vanthe scabbard, and gleams of warlike guard, have just entered. The Coslight shone through the sanctuary. sacks are honest fellows; but give me This hour of worship was so much a German and a fellow-countryman to the more impressive, that most of us ring a glass with! The French have went out with the conviction it was now evacuated the old town also ; the the last time we should ever meet. Russians have passed at two points, I know one or two faces in our train, at Meissen below and Schandau above, on which I can see it quite visibly threatening to cut off their retreat. written that they will be among the Your gallant old Blücher speaks, in first whom the angel of death shall faith, a different language from what devour. Truly, there is nothing in our ancient perruques here drivel. He this life equal to the clear distinct has put forth an address to the Saxons, feeling of freedom, which in the mo

which stands on the corner of every ment of danger, with a smiling confi- street; and the people read it with dence, takes its abode in the heart of great interest, from the fiery youths to the cool determined soldier. No death the cautious old Philistines," who is so mild as that beneath the balls of shake their wise heads and go home. the enemy; for that which is wont to Had we only a great character here, give the keenest sting to the heart of a Schill, or a Yorck, to put himself at the departing mortal—the thought of the head of the troops ! I still have separation from all that he holds most hope in Thielmann: he has been dear upon earth-loses its bitterness in made commandant of Torgau, and the glorious persuasion, that the holi- has, as I hear, refused, even the ness of his fall will act as balm to king's command, to admit a single heal the wounded hearts of those that Frenchman into the fortress. Saxlove him."

ony at the present moment

turn the balance of Europe. We The prospect with which Körner have four millions of inhabitants ; let flatters himself in this letter, that of 100,000, or only 50,000 of these be acquiring laurels in driving the French put under arms; our brethren in out of Dresden, was not realized. The Franconia, Hessia, Westphalia, are enemy quitted Dresden as hastily as ready to join us ; we should possess the they had done Berlin. Two bloody Fichtelgebirg, the Thuringer forest, batiles, Lützen and Bautzen, were the Spessart, and the Hartz. Napoleon necessary, before Napoleon could fix would find no other way open but his headquarters there; the struggle through the Teutoburger forest, and which Körner anticipated took place, there should the French tyranny—as on the 26th of August, at the famous erst the Roman--be annihilated. But battle of Dresden, the last victory of good words, mere words,will do nothing the French in Germany; a mere flash, here. Alexander should declare to however, and utterly worthless, as the the king without ceremony-appear event proved, in the face of Katzbach, in Dresden within eight days, or give Culm, Grossbeeren, Dennewitz, and up all hopes of calling your land and the strong body of Prussian patrio- throne yours any longer!' This were tism by which these glorious victories the time for the Ernestine line to bring were supported.

forward its claims; Protestant Saxony


This students' phrase, which has now got into general currency, means pedant, prig, finical, methodistical; every thing narrow, small, stay-laced, screwed, formal, self-important. Every person is a Philistine that is not a good, hearty, substantial, honest fellow.

would welcome the Duke of Weimar hands of our Cossacks. To a deputawith enthusiasm."

tion from the city of Hamburgh, which In these words we find the germ of arrived on the 16th at our headquarthat policy which taught the diploma. ters, Colonel Tettenborn declared that tists at Vienna, in 1816, to cut Saxony he could enter into no negotiation exin two, and give one-half to Prussia. cept with the legitimate authorities of Various opinions have been expressed the city. When the deputies returned with regard to the justice of this pro with this answer, the municipality that ceeding. We, for our part, think had been nominated by Napoleon that the King of Saxony suffered only immediately resigned their offices, and what he deserved; we think, however, the ancient senate was restored. Yes. also with many Germans, that the terday, at noon, we made our public appropriation, or spoliation, having entry into the town; and I am confi. been once resolved on, it would have dent that in no throng of battle shall been better, both for Saxony and I ever come into greater danger than Prussia, and for the whole of Germany, I was here amid the flood of frieodiy that it had been done thoroughly; and salutations. Sapperment! The Hamit is a matter of historical fact, that burghers squeeze the hand in a fashion Lord Castlereagh had agreed to trans- that I shall not forget to my dying fer the whole of Saxony to Prussia, day! Siuce Hamburgh was a town when the jealousy of France and the with walls, never has such joy been; intriguing spirit of Talleyrand inter- they who would understand such exfered. What evils the conduct of the ultation, must have themselves felt the King of Saxony produced, Hamburgh yoke under which they bad so long alone is sufficient witness. Not the groaned. A company of thirty burAllies, but the timid policy of the ghers had come out on horseback to Saxon court, was to blame for the mi. meet the Russians, and lead them triseries that the good Hansestadt suf- umphantly into the city. As we came fered, subjected a second time to the nearer the city the convoy increased, tender mercies of Davoust. The fol- and a vast crowd preceded the column lowing letter contains a very animated with loud balloo and hurrah. We picture of the entry of the Cossacks soon came to a side-road by which the into Hamburgh-all joy and bright- Russians were to enter the city. At Dess, like some scenes from the French the junction of the two roads the Revolution—to be changed, how soon, Burgher guard was drawn up on horseinto utter darkness !

back, and placed duly at the head of

the column; a little further on the “ W. to R.

Guild of Shooters joined the troop,

and led on the procession. About “ Hamburgh, 19th March 1813.

half a mile from the city, we were met “ Hamburgh, the ancient, noble, by the whole citizens in a body, who free Hanse-town, bas cast out the in- filled all the side-roads, bypaths, vader. The French eagles, which fields, and gardens round about; a Napoleon planted here when he pro- continuous hurrah accompanied our nounced Hamburgh the fifth imperial progress, while the Cossacks sang their city, have yielded to the old town merry national airs. At a short disarms. Yesterday we had a proces- tance from the gate, a deputation desion into the town, of which the me- livered to the colonel the keys of the mory lives in me to this day like a city. At the gate stood thirty maid. sort of intoxication. Nevertheless, I ens clothed in white, and crowned our will collect myself as much as I can, commander with wreaths. Instantly and give you a plain account of our shouts of joyful acclamation and apdoings. The entry of the Russians plause bellowed from the mighty mul. into Berlin-the universal uprising of iitude ; and the enthusiasm, great bethe Prussian nation—the declaration fore, rose now to a pitch that carried of Sweden in favour of the good cause, every thing, as by the force of magie, and the appearance of an English fleet, along with it. Vivat Alexander! viwere motives enough to induce the vat Frederic William! our deliverers! French authorities to leave the city ; our saviours! Long live the Rusthis they did on the 12th, and in such sians ! long live the Prussians! Old haste, that they left six cannons on England for ever! Long live Hamthis side of the Elbe to fall into the burgh! Hurrah, and again hurrah!

shouted thousands and thousands of there is a vague clause to the same voices, till the air trembled with joy. effect in the act of confederation ; but From every window handkerchiefs these words have not yet become were waving numberless ; the guilds deeds. and corporations displayed their glittering banners ; hats with green

« F. to THEODORE. branches were elevated on long poles,

“ Dresden, 1st April 1813. or on the points of swords, or were “ Just this minute am I come from thrown into the air with shouts of General Biücher; and I give my joy. All the bells sounded, and counsel to every one who wishes to from every quarter guns and mus- do any thing substantial here, to apply kets thundered the friendly salute; to this old hack-blade (haudegen ;) and hurrah again, and vivat, from a a more noble nature was never inthousand and a thousand voices. From carnated in the shape of a Prussian every side the people crowded around hussar. I know you will laugh at the us, and dressed the horses of the offi- important business I transacted with cers who led the procession with the Prussian generalissimo; but I green boughs, and the ladies threw must tell my tale :-I had written flowers and wreaths from every bal- about a dozen other songs in the same cony. Many I saw weeping for joy; burschikose tone as that which I sent friends and strangers embraced, and you ; t but though Davoust was off wished each other joy to have lived and away, and the Cossacks held both and seen such a day. To have lived the old and new town, the small and seen this, is indeed enough to in- anxiety of the censorship refused the spire the most sceptical with faith in necessary imprimatur. In this need, fatherland. What, has not all been what could be more opportune for me done to annihilate our German na- than the proclamation of General Blutionality ? and, alas! we must con- cher, in which he expressly announces fess it did we not advance half to the Saxons the return of the FREEway to meet the French, adopting

Accordingly, as with pure eagerness their fashions, soon as he arrived here in person, I their follies, and their flattering arts, took the liberty to send him my MS., so that their own tyrant found us half requesting bis sanction to put it to tamed to his yoke, and seemed to place press; and, of course, not forgetting his iron foot only where a footstool io appeal to the terms of his own prowas already placed for him? But, God clamation. The next morning I rebe praised | there flows yet sound blood ceived my MS. with the following in German veins; we recover our recollection and our self-esteem; and • Among the many signs of true the German name will yet come to German feeling which I have met honour in the history of the world."* with since I entered Saxony, I prize We return to Dresden. The follow

none more highly than the confidence ing letter exhibits Marshal Blücher you, respected sir, have shown in me, announcing himself to the Saxons in by your yesterday's request in the the character of a liberator from the matter of the war-songs. I not only censorship of the press. Literally authorize, but order these composithe spy-system of Napoleon was so tions to be printed. The present note terrible and so severely felt through shall serve as a warrant to the all Germany, tbat even military Prussia printers. could stand forward against him with

• Blücher. something like the front of free-mouth- An orderly jäger brought me this ed Britain. In the Congress of Vinote, and imagine my astonishment enna also, something was said about when I recognized under the military freedom of the press in Germany; and costume our old friend Br, the




* The Hamburgh episode is well sketched in " The Year of Liberation. London: Duncan, 1832."- A graphic and vigorous work, attributed to Dr Croly.

† Some of Förster's songs will be found in most of the common collections of patriotic melodies. They will live long after more finished compositions shall have been forgotten. With those of Arndt, Follen, Körner, and others, they form a sort of . lyrical Iliad of the time.

very blank.

Candidatus Theologia with whom we of the crusades ; I know that faith in had so many excursions among the fatherland also is a religion. And hills ! From him I learned enough to what an inward transformation of encourage me to proceed immediately the whole man, has this crusade for to Blücher's quarters, and return freedom and fatherland not worked in thanks personally for his attention. all! You would scarcely know them I found the old gentleman at break again, these old renowners of Jena fast, assisting his digestion by receiv. and Hallo, who formerly knew no ing various reports. Among so many more glorious boast than to drink out brilliant hussars and jägers I looked so and so many mugs of beer, to

When I was presented scratch their cheeks in so and so many to him, and had thanked him formally, boyish duels, and so and so many he laid his hand with great friendliness times to have smashed the rector's on my shoulder. Nur immer mun- windows. They stand now proper ter, drauf los gesangen !' Be always men, in rank and file, obedient to a hearty, and ever have a song ready,' wise command ; and our whole existhe said: "it scatters fire among the peo- ence has received a practical consecraple—this is a time when all sleepers tion, of which formerly we had no conmust be roused, this man with a song, ception; with all this we are merry that man with a sword.' "Your ex- enough—mad if you will, at times. We cellency does not imagine,' I replied, sing our old Burschen songs, auf der 'that I have not an arm as well as a goldenen Freiheit wohl !' as before, but throat. 'I am waiting for Lutzow's the Landesvater, and the sword laden corps, which I intend to join.' “So with caps, have now a meaning altogemuch the better,' cried he; we may ther different from what they had behobnob it (austossen) immediately side the famous tun of Heidelberg, or as full brothers.' And with that be at the election of a magister bibendi at forced me to drink good fellowship Lichtenhain. with him. A better omen to com

• What was my joy, you may guess, mence my campaign with I could not in meeting Theodore again - The have desired.

leave-taking from his parents, from “ After this, I went to Arnold's his sister, and yet more from his be. printing establishment, and the songs loved bride, was hard. Verily, when will be out to-morrow.

one has made such offerings as these, “ The king's address has had a one's own bleeding heart can weigh wonderful effect here. He appeals to but little in the scale. all Germany; and every where he will « On the day before the march, I find the public heart reiterate to his sat an hour with him ; his sister, a call. Soon to meet again,

fond kind-hearted girl, was painting 6 Thine,

his portrait ; she is a scholar of the

“F. F. famous Graff, and paints excellently From to-day a Royal Prussian in oil. On a sudden, with a loud Volunteer."

scream, she drops the brush, and falls

into a convulsive fit of weeping. The next letter is on the march; For God's sake, wliat's the matter?' and, as a lucky omen on such fateful cried the poet, and sprang towards expedition, Förster rejoices to en- her. She took her handkerchief, and, counter-Goethe,

still weeping and trembling, pressed “ F. to his Sister in A.

it to his brow. • Here it is gushing,'

she said, sobbing. •I saw it; you are " Bivouack near Merseburg,

2012 April 1813. wounded; you bleed !'-and then by " Dear Sister— The 11th April, degrees recollecting herself, she said, the birth-day of our dear father, was • Alas, my sick fancy, my indescribthe day of my march out of Dresden. able love for thee! As I was painting, Oh, it is a noble life this soldier's life! I and pictured you out to my thoughts cannot conceive how any man can allow more than to my eye, I lost all percephimself to be shut in bebind the desk tion of reality; I saw you wounded and behind the stove, in civil fashion! in battle ; with open eyes I dreamt!' What I knew only as poetry, or as past, Theodore, with his ready cheerful whose return was impossible, I now humour, sought to turn off the evil experience as real present truth; I omen. . It is plain you are gifted with feel myself transported into the time clairvoyance, dear sister. I deal in


the black art-get me a cup of coffee ing hymn before the Gasthof, where as black as you can make it, and paint our corporal was quartered, when I on while I am sipping.' Emma went saw a man mounting into an extra and brought the beverage ; and Theo- post, whose features appeared familiar dore was inexhaustible in all sorts of to me. Scarcely could I believe my playful prophecies.

eyes when I saw - Goethe. As the " Concerning my first march, I friend of his son, and as a favourite must give you a few incidents. I am beau of his dance-loving wife at balls, one of a company which a venerable I had been often in his house ; but how professor from Berlin, by name Mark- he, who of all men loves peace, should wort, commands, not as captain, but have got himself into the middle of as corporal; we are to choose our our war hurly-burly, I know not how officers afterwards ourselves, when we to explain. I thought I must be mishave seen who is the man of most fire taken ; the more that he had drawn and firmness for the occasion. We the military cap far over his face, and marched, fifty men strong, as the had wrapped himself up in a Rus. avant-guard.' Early in the morning, sian general's cloak, with red collar: and as soon as we were clear of the but when I saw his little secretary, city, we formed ourselves in a circle; friend John, mount the curricle after the old corporal in the centre pro- him, I was assured there could be no nounced a short prayer; and after blunder; so I made the important dis. that we sang the old church hymn- covery straightway to my comrades. Verzage nicht du häuflein klein.' I then, assuming the air of an orderly A beautiful and impressive hymn, officer, approached the carriage, and most appropriate for us, and remark- said— I intimate to your Excellency able no less for its historical than for that a division of the Royal Prussian its moral significancy; for Gustavus Volunteers of the Black Jäger, on their Adolphus himself composed it, and march to Leipzig, is drawn up before bis brave Swedes sang it on the morn- your quarters, and wishes to pay the ing before the battle of Lützen. Then, honours to your Excellency. The on the road, we sang all sorts of corporal gave the word of command merry, jäger-songs--the most po- - present arms!-and I called · LONG pular is Fouque's.

LIVE GOETHE, THE POET OF POETS!' Frisch auf zum fröhlichen Jagen, The whole company then joined with Es ist schon an der zeit.'

hurrah and horn. He touched his cap s That Theodore is not behind with the air of a general, and nodded hand in supplying us with first-rate kindly. A second time I approached songs, you may


suppose. Some him, and said,— Your incognito has of mine also are received into the noble proved no defence to your Excellency. fellowship. Our first night's quarters The Black Jäger have sharp eyes ; were at Meissen. A good shake-down and to encounter Goethe at the outof straw was prepared; for, from this set of our march, was too good an omen day forward, we are all bound to sleep to be neglected.

We crave your no more on down. The sooner a sol. blessing on dier learns to endure hardness' the heartily,' he replied. I gave him my better. With the dawn of day, the jä- rifle and hunting-knife : he laid his ger-horps woke us ; and presently we hand on it, and said March with stood all again in rank and file. Some, God, and all good attend your stout however, made very sour faces; and German courage!' With that we W. said to me, in all seriousness, That gave him another vivat; be waved his sounds very pretty, with God, king, hand and was gone. Where was he and fatherland; but, without coffee, going ?I don't think we can make much way.' Where was Goethe going ?-to Some of those who had had the good Carlsbad, of course, to drink drumly fortune to enjoy their comfortable cup waters, and study stones and stratifi. before starting, hailed this remark with cation. He had seen cannon-balls a hearty laugh; for my part I rejoice enough at Valmy in 1792. Our on the present occasion, that I am next letter is from the famous Arndt, a slave neither of coffee-cups nor of the most popular among the popular cherry-stick. My father surely fore- singers of that stirring age. We have saw that I should early be rejoiced to been induced to insert it, both as a act the soldier.

characteristic of the writer, who still “ We had just finished our morn- lives and writes, and as containing, in



• Right

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