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lumns of correspondence every week, Sultan anti-Malthusianizing in Conbeginning with—“Sir, your zeal in stantinople. A flourish of this kind the noble cause of education induces generally produces a good effect; the me to appeal to you, and through you ladies will call it“ sweet." to an enlightened public, your wide VI. Factories. Of course, if you circulation among whom is at once a

are in Manchester, Liverpool, Bolton, proof of their discernment and your · Huddersfield, Oldham, or any other ability,&c. Of course, you must

similar place, which the deceased not allow a correspondent to address

member for the last-named town used you in any other strain-and always put in the «s widely circulated." A lot

to compliment by the title of Hell

holes, you must be for the factory of learning here is good, for on the principle that

system, else your duration as a news

paper editor will be very short. You “ He who rules freemen, should himself must say, Avaunt, Ashley! Sink, Sadbe free,”

ler! Down, Trollope, down! Denounce or, as Doctor Johnson read the line, all the statements of the anti-factory " Who drives fat oxen, should himself folks as so many distinct lies-mainbe fat;"

tain that the mill owners are angels, so he who talks of education should

a and their operations such as were be himself, or, what is the same thing,

never heard of since the days of should appear to be educated. You

Glauber, greatest of operators. Talk may, for instance, refer to the case of

of the happiness of the children as Sardanapalus, whose ruin was attribut

unequalled, and be pathetic upon the able solely to the want of being sent to

pleasure it must give them- bless a normal school in his youth. Quote

their little hearts!-to contribute to the his inscription, in reality from Lord

comforts and the sustenance of their Byron, but pretend that you found it

kind parents from the early age of six. in Diodorus Siculus :

Be loud in praise of the importance of

the manufacturers of England, and set " Sardanapalus

the spinning-jennies above the Nine The King, and son of Anacyndyrages,

Muses and the Three Graces. Of In one day built Anchialus and Tarsus. "

course, be liberal of tables and calcu. *** Eat, drink, and sport, the rest's not lations, with which the Scotch bookworth a filip."

keepers will supply you ad libitum. You may observe that this sentiment As the factory men are about the most proves him to be a man of no educa- hospitable fellows in the world, you tion, else he would have given a very will live on the fat of the land if you different line. He would have said,

play your cards well-only do not let as many others have said since his your admiration of cotton-twist betray time,

you, as there is great danger among “ Instruct the poor,-their food's not

the ever-bibing Niancunians, into a • worth a filip."

still stronger admiration of gin-twist.

If your lot be cast among anti-factory Owing to his want of being educated, he kept disreputable company,

men, why, there you have nothing to

do but to enlist Oastler or Stephens, who never had conversaziones, or

lones; of (if out of quod,) and deplore the calasoirées, or reunions of philosophical

mities of the factory slave. Talk of discussion, or never attended any of

tender infancy that never knew what Dr Lardner's lectures. If he had been

it was to be a child, and shed tears duly cultivated in time, and taught to

over the billy-roller. Describe Arkread the works of the noble poet who has made him the hero of a tragedy,

wright as Moloch in Miltonor those of his friend, Mr Moore;

“Factory king, besmear'd with blood if he had possessed the means of Of 'prentice sacrifice, and parents' tears, being able to peruse Don Juan, for Though from the whirr of spinning jennies example, or the poems of Thomas

shrill Little, it is highly probable that he

The childrens' cries unheard that pass d . would never have been overthrown by

through the arms of Arbaces the Median, and

To his grim overseer.” the empire of Assyria might be flou. On one side appeal to a liberal and rishing to this hour, and the emperor enlightened public, whether such a offering his mediation between Mehe man as Muntz, with his beard stream. met Pacha of Egypt and the youthful ing like a meteor through the troubled

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-, Sultan anti-Malthusianizing in Con«

stantinople. A flourish of this kind 3 generally produces a good effect: the ladies will call it “ sweet."

VI. Factories. Of course, if you are in Manchester, Liverpool, Bolton, Huddersfield, Oldham, or any other similar place, which the deceased member for the last-named town used to compliment by the title of Hell. holes, you must be for the factory system, else your duration as paper

editor will be very short. You must say, Avaunt, Ashley! Sink, Sadler! Down, Trollope, down! Denounce

all the statements of the anti-factory If folks

as so many distinct lies--main. tain that the mill owners are angels, d

and their operations such as were never heard of since the days of

Glauber, greatest of operators. Talk of

of the happiness of the children as unequalled, and be pathetic upon the pleasure it must give them -bless

their little hearts!-to contribute to the d

comforts and the sustenance of their it

kind parents from the early age of six, Be loud in praise of the importance of the manufacturers of England, and set the spinning-jennies above the Nine Muses and the Three Graces. Of

t

co

ce

18

course, be liberal of tables and calcu. tlations, with which the Scotch book

keepers will supply you ad libitum. at As the factory

men are about the most hospitable fellows in the world, you

will live on the fat of the land if you y i, play your cards well-only do not let

your admiration of cotton-iwist betray you, as there is great danger among the ever-bibing Niancunians, into a still stronger admiration of gin-twist. If your lot be cast among anti-factory

men, why, there you have nothing to ; do but to enlist Oastler or Stephens,

(if out of quod,) and deplore the calamities of the factory slave. Talk of

tender infancy that never knew what . it was to be a child, and shed tears

over the billy-roller. Describe Ark. wright as Moloch in Milton

"Factory king, besmeard with blood Of 'prentice sacrifice, and parents' tears, Though from the whirr of spinning jennies

shrill The childrens' cries upheard that pi:s d

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air, would support the factory system from the office. I have still mu
if his benevolent heart suspected any observe on the remaining twelve
of the Trollopian horrors. Ods, of my political cyclopædia, wb
goose-and-giblets, I should rather shall impart with as much brev
think not. On the other hand, would I think properly consistent with
the red Milesian, Feargus O'Connor, understanding of the business.
now incarcerated in York Castle and said at the beginning of my let
steeped in the bitterest waters of Jor am very doubtful that this will
dan, rouse up the thunders of his you ; for, though Doctor Fra
eloquence to blow away the mill once received a letter which was
owners with a shout more awful than directed
that which

Dr Franklin,
“ Vexed Syella bathing in the sea that

America, parts

yet I think, if I directed mine Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian

Tobias Flimsy, Esq., shore ?"

&c. &c. -I do not know what is so often

England, cramming Milton into my mouth, but, there would not be the same cer as I shall remark by and by, he is a of its coming to hand. Indeed I famous fellow to quote-unless the a man of your modest and re cry against the factory system arose to habits would be sorry to find yo heaven, and Feargus thought it neces. so conspicuous as to render it's sary to send his after it, in order to give to reach your place of domicile. it a shove upwards. On the whole, it Tobias, you have chosen the is a good question for both sides to which Horace desired for himse write upon: here you have protection of infants, maternal sorrow, waste of

“ Securum iter, et fallentis semita youthful life, deprivation of youthful “ The path secure, where bailiffs innocence, horrible atmosphere, hor come, rible toil, horrible morals, every tiring

That line of march which best dec in short horrible, horrible, horrible ;

bum ;" and there you are furnished with com as Francis, or some other le merce of the country, England raised person translates it. I have, to power and glory by manufactures, fore, chanced this letter-send philanthropic masters, prosperous chile through the cashier of the old dren, hatred of cant and humbug, de- and, as I know you are not fiance of falsehood-and much more debt, because he would not le besides, which will furnish both par. overdraw him, though you ma ties with materials of endless twines a few vigorous attempts, it is p of controversy as long drawn out as

he may know something about the African tapeworm, perpetually Sally sends her best love. Is unwound from the tortured interior of

any thing I can do for you? a slave-protecting settler in Freetown, have dropped into any salary -happy capital of that which once was might, perhaps, let me have Sierra Leone, but which now rejoices money. You may depend up in the nobler epithet of Liberia. applying it with the greatest jud VII. Finance. This, my dear To and caution in your

service. bias, is the most

I am, dear Tobias, But the fact is, I am getting very

Sincerely yours, short of paper, and cannot enter upon

Nestor GOOSEQU the subject of finance at this late hour P.S.-Be candid with me. I of the night in the present scarcity a whisper that you were gone of paper, I mean. I wish you had left direction of the north.

H a few quires behind you ; it would not bright and shining, are you ir have cost you any thing, as you might caster Castle ? Answer by ret have abstracted it without difficulty post--at all events as soon as po

through To his grim overseer." On one side appeal to a liberal and enlightened public, whether such a man as Muntź, with his beard stream.

meteor through the troubled

HISTORY OF EUROPE.*

The volumes which Mr Alison has for human interest, nor too extended already contributed to the history of for human life. It was comprehended the last quarter of a century, havegiven within a single generation. It had unquestionable evidence of his quali, all the complexity, yet the clearness, ties for his important task. A striking the general design, yet the individual command of language, manly and objects, the long alternations of hope constitutional principles, a conception and fear, the intricate adventure, and at once clear and glowing, and a the dazzling and stupendous catajudgment at once chastised and ele- strophe. Living remembrance had vated by religion, place him in the seen nothing that resembled it. It first rank of those who have recorded brought a new race of impulses into the wonders of the French Revolution. being. Kingly ambition, popular

France has not been without her rage, the mysterious and haughty sedescribers of this most extraordinary verities of superstition, the wild retime; but she has still to accomplish venge of ignorance inflamed by a sense the achievement of producing a his. of wrong,—all had passed over the torian. · Her triumph is in animated surface of European history in their anecdote, her writers are matchless succession, and all bad vanished. conteurs, and her best modern his. But at the moment when mankind tories are « mémoires pour servir." had begun to ridicule the disturThe national genius seems hostile to bances and the disturbers, as the the comprehensive views and majestic work of ages when the world lay in strength of history. Nothing can darkness and the ghost and the rob. surpass the finish and force of her ber held equal sway over the night, pictures of the individual actors in her other and still more startling influences great public events, and to this extent were let loose. Shapes of evil that the labours of the later French writers had scarcely been dreamed of in the must have a value: they are exact, excited imagination of the past sprang spirited, and brilliant; the great his up before the present. The disturtorian, like the great painter, will banco spread over nations, the disavail himself of their physiognomies, turber stood before us in the broad but he will form his groups from other day of European intelligence. The recollections. He will shape the ge- Revolution wore a visage of fierceness neral action from loftier knowledge and power to which history had seen and by the application of broader nothing equal. A tyranny more sulprinciples, and the creative power len than superstition, and more savage which belongs to genius alone, will than despotism,-mingling infidelity give the world that canvass which alone with treason, and giving a new force contains the mind of the age.

to its hostility against human laws by We have read Mr Alison's previous its insults to heaven,-exhibited itself volumes with a degree of pleasure which to the world, less breaking down than has certainly been unfelt by us in any blasting all resistance ; trampling on other historical work. It has beguiled every army and crown of the Conti. us from chapter to chapter with all the nent; and alike in its desperate de. captivation of a noble romance, while signs, and its irresistible successes, its sound principles and its extensive displaying the splendour, the subtlety, information have given that romance and the remorseless havoc of a fiend. the still stronger charm of the most The present volume embraces the magnificent of realities. The whole period from 1809 to the close of 1812; French Revolution was a drama. It the “ fourth act” of the drama, when had the beginning, middle, and end, all the scattered causes were begin. and all within a period not too brief ning to ripen, the leading characters

* History of Europe, from the Commencement of the French Revolution in 1789 to the Restoration of the Bourbons in 1815. By Archibald Alison, E.R.S.E., Advocate, Vol. VIII,

RY OF EUROPE.*

has for human interest, nor too extended

of for human life. It was comprehended
ven within a single generation. It had
ali- all the complexity, yet the clearness,
cing the general design, yet the individual
and objects, the long alternations of hope
tion and fear, the intricate adventure, and
1а the dazzling and stupendous cata.
ele- strophe. Living remembrance had
the seen nothing that resembled it. It
-ded brought a new race of impulses into
Fon. being.

Kingly ambition, popular
her rage, the mysterious and baughty seo
ary verities of superstition, the wild re-
lish venge of ignorance inflamed by a sense
his- of wrong,--all had passed over the
ated surface of European history in their
less succession, and all had vanished.
his. But at the moment when mankind
ir.” had begun to ridicule the distur-
2 to bances and the disturbers, as the
estic work of ages when the world lay in
can darkness and the ghost and the robe
her ber held equal sway over the night

,
her other and still more startling influences
tent were let loose. Shapes of evil that
ters bad scarcely been dreamed of in the
act, excited imagination of the past sprang
hise up before the present. The distur-
will bance spread over nations, the dis.
ies, turber stood before us in the broad
her day of European intelligence. The
ge- Revolution wore a visage of fierceness
dge and power to which history had seen

der nothing equal. A tyranny more sul. wer len than superstition, and more savage will than despotism,-mingling infidelity

with treason, and giving a new force

to grow distinct, and the conclusion to fame, and in some respects undes shape itself, though still remotely and permanent neglect. The arden in clouds, to the general eye.

more elevated, but unsteady mil The variety and multiplicity of the Rousseau disdained such degr events is actually astonishing; and, bondage. The bow, bent too far compared with those of any equal du. way, recoiled too far another; an ration in European anvals, throws the votaries of fashion, in an artificia tumults of the past totally into the and a corrupted capital, were amus shade. Whatever may be the perverse

the eloquent declamations of the r vigour of public disturbance among mankind, the social contract, an

of Meillerie on the pristine equal our posterity, it will not have the power of reproaching our age with original dignity of the savage chara inactivity in point of political con. manity from the wrong source, !

Raynal, deducing the principles o vulsion.

with persuasive fervour, but wi These four years include the most im- prophetic foresight, the establishportant crisis of the war in the Peninof the European in the two hemispl sula:— Wellington's daring plans and and, blind to the mighty change successes in the central provinces, and they were destined to eitect in the the disastrous struggles of the native dition of the species, diffused those armies on the eastern coast,—the nicious dogmas which have now b singular changes of the Mohammedan the happiness of the negro race b world,- the reforms of Mahmood, and the French and English colonies the Russian war in Turkey, - the sought to deduce, from the comm Russian and French war ; the succes. ment of the vast change destin sion of sanguinary encounters at Boro. spread the Christian faith over the dino, Moscow, &c.,--and the memor.

derness of nature, arguments agai able retreat and the general resumption celestial origin. Every departmof arms by the vassals of France, pre- thought, save one,wastainted by th paratory to the overthrow of the tyrant eral wickedness, and blindness to who had so long trampled upon them present objects, which prevailed. al).

connexion with his Maker was b The volume commences with a brief by the French apostles of freedon

they declared there was no God, in but animated view of the mental con.

to trust in the great struggle for dition of Europe during the age of

ty. “Human immortality,' says George the Third. Of the immorality ning, “that truth which is the s arising from the French literature of all greatness, they derided. To the day, it speaks with equal truth and philosophy man was a creature of e eloquence :

a compound of matter, a worm s “ In no age of the world has the de rot and perish for ever. France grading effect of long-continued prospe- in her attempts for freedom, tł rity, and the regenerating influence of the want of that moral preparati difficulty and suffering on human thought, liberty, without which the blessin been more clearly evinced. The latter not be secured. Liberty was tain part of the eighteenth century, the their touch, polluted by their la reign of Louis XV., the Regent Orleans, and yet we trusted it was to i and Louis XVI., were characterised by health and glory from their em a flood of selfishness and corruption, the In the exact sciences alone, dep sure forerunners in the annals of nations upon intellect only, the native of external disaster or internal ruin. of the human mind was asserte Fancy was applied only to give variety the names of D'Alembert, La G to the passions--genius to inflame, by and La Place, will remain to the the intermixture of sentiment, the seduce the world among those who, in t tions of the senses—talent to obscure' tiest subjects of enquiry, have ex the Creator from whom it sprung. The and enlarged the boundaries of great powers of Voltaire, capable, as his ledge. tragedies demonstrate, of the most ex “ But more animating times we alted as well as varied efforts, were per proaching fast: corruption had pr verted by the spirit of the age in which its inevitable fruits; and adversit he lived. He wrote for individual cele- its renovating influence, was al brity, not eternal truth; and he obtain pass over the moral world.

The ed, in consequence, the natural reward sution came with its disasters of such conduct, unbounded present passions; its overthrow of throna

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to its hostility against human laws by

its insults to heaven,-exbibited itself nich to the world, less breaking down than any blasting all resistance ; trampling on led every army and crown of the Conti

. the nent; and alike in its desperate de. aile signs, and its irresistible successes

, ive displaying the splendour, the subtlety, nce and the remorseless havoc of a fiend.

The present volume embraces the ole period from 1809 to the close of 1812;

It the "fourth act" of the drama, when nd, all the scattered causes were beginief ning to ripen, the leading characters

ost

NO. CCXCVII, VOL. XLVIII.

mencement of the French Revolution in 1789 1815. By Archibald Alison, ER.S.E., Advo

destruction of altars; its woes, its nal intrepidity; and when he proposed, blood, and its suffering. In the general during the dreadful riots of 1780, to ride deluge thus suddenly falling on a sinful at the head of his guards into the midst world, the mass of mankind in all ranks of the fires of his capital, he did no still clung to their former vices. They more than what his simple heart told were, as of old, marrying and giving in him was his duty, but what, neverthemarriage when the waters burst upon less, bespoke the monarch fitted to them. But the ark of salvation had quench the conflagration of Europe. been prepared by more than mortal Though quick in conversation, as kings hands. The handwriting on the wall generally are, he could not be said to was perceived by the gifted few to whom have an acute mind; and yet the native Providence had unlocked the fountains strength of his intellect enabled him to of original thought; and in the highest detect at once any sophistry which inclass of intellect was soon to be discern terfered with the just sense he always ed the elevating influence of trial and entertained of his public or religious suffering on the human mind.”

duties. When Mr Dundas, in the course

of conversation on the Catholic claims, We are glad to find the historian

previous to Mr Pitt's retirement on that pausing on his way to more showy

ground in 1800, urged the often repeatand tumultuous themes, to do bonour,

ed argument, that the Coronation oath which was but to do justice, to the me.

was taken by him only in relation to his mory of George the Third. The fac

executive duties, he at once replied, tion which that honest and high- « Come, come, Mr Dundas, let us have principled monarch excluded from the none of your Scotch metaphysics.' means of public mischief during his reign, have taken the base revenge of The firmness which he exhibited on occalumny since his decease ; and it is casion of the run upon the Bank and the only the duty of history, which will mutiny of the Nore, in 1797, brought live when pamphleteering bitterness, the nation safely through the most danand the hedge-firing hostility of re- gerous crisis of recent times. His inviews, are sunk in contemptuous obli- tlexible determination, in 1807, to advion, to pay the national tribute to the mit no compromise with the Catholics most English sovereign that ever sat regarding the Coronation oath, averted upon the throne.

for twenty years that loosening of the

constitution in Church and State, under “No monarch was ever better adapted which the nation has since so grievously for the arduous and momentous duty to laboured. When resisting, almost alone, which he was called, or possessed quali Mr Fox's India billin 1783, he expressties more peculiarly fitted for the diffi- ed his determination rather to resign culties with which, during his long his crown, and retire to Hanover, than reign, he had to contend. Born and bred permit it to become a law; and the result in England, he gloried, as he himself has proved both that he had correctly said, in the name of Briton. Educated scanned on that occasion the feelings of in the principles of the Protestant reli. the English people, and rightly appregion, he looked to their maintenance not

ciated the probable effect of the pro. only as his first duty, but as the only

posed measure on our eastern empire, safeguard of his throne. Simple in his and the balance of the constitution in habits, moderate in his desires, unosten- this country. tatious in his tastes, he preferred, amidst the seductions of a palace, the purity His determination to admit no accomand virtues of domestic life. His edu- modation with the American insurgents, cation had been neglected-hisinforma- prolonged that unhappy contest for years tion was not extensive; but he posses- after even his own ministers had become sed, in a very high degree, that native aware that it was hopeless : yet even sagacity and just discrimination, for the such a resolution had something magwant of which no intellectual cultivation nanimous in its character. It is now can afford any compensation, and which well known, that, but for the incapaare so often found more than adequate city of the generals in command of his to supply the place of the most brilliant armies, his firmness would have been reand even solid acquisitions. He inherit- warded with success; and all must admit, ed from his father the hereditary cour that his first words to the American age and firmness of his race. On re minister who came to his court after the peated occasions, when his life was peace,_' I was the last man in my doattempted, he evinced a rare and perso. minions to acknowledge your indepen

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