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" Illa tamen gravior, quæ, cum discum- Let mine, ye gods, if such must be my
bere cæpit, Laudat Virgilium, perituræ ignoscit No logic learn, nor history translate ; Elissæ,
But rather be a quiet humble fool. Committit vates et comparat ; inde Ma I hate a wife to whom I go to school, ronem,
Who climbs the grammar tree, distinctly Atque alia in parte trutinâ suspendit knows
Where noun and verband participle Cedunt grammatici, vincuntur rhetores, grows : omnis
Corrects her country neighbour ; and Turba tacet: nec causidicus nec præco a-bed, loquatur,
For breaking Priscian's, breaks her Altera nec mulier : verborum tanta cadit husband's head." vis,
A superstitious personification conTot pariter pelves, tot tintinnabula, dicas
nected with what we have now been Pulsari. Jam nemo tubas, nemo era
considering, but somewhat different in fatiget: Una laboranti poterit succurrere Lunc.
its nature, is to be found in the popu Imponit finem sapiens et rebus honestis,
lar imagination of the Man-in-the Nam quæ docta nimis cupit et facunda Moon. This fiction has sprung out videri,
of those appearances which, to vulgar Crure tenus medio tunicas succingere and unaided eyes, present under an debet,
aspect so much less sublime the same Cædere Silvano porcum, quadrante luminary lavari.
" whose orb Non habeat matrona, tibi quæ juncta Thro' optic glass the Tuscan artist views, recumbit,
At evening from the top of Fesolé, Dicendi genus, aut curtum sermone Or in Valdarno, to descry new lands, rotato
Rivers or mountains in her spotty globe.” Torqueat enthymema; nec historias
The existence of a man in the moon, sciat omnes. Sed quædam ex libris et non intelligat.
or of more than one, was a popular Odi
belief long before Fontenelle wrote Hanc ego, quæ repetit volvitque Palæ.
Plurality of Worlds, or Bishop Wilmonis artem,
kins his discourse to prove the probaServata semper lege et ratione loquendi; bility of the moon's being inhabited, Ignotosque mihi tenet antiquaria versus, and the practicability of a passage beNec curanda viris opicæ castigat amicæ tween that region and the earth. DifVerba : solæcismum liceat fecisse ma ferent nations, however, have adopt. rito."
ed different accounts of the history “ But of all plagues the greatest is untold; and character of the personages, one The book-learned wife in Greek and or more, who occupy so conspicuous a Latin bold.
position; and generally speaking, it has The critic dame who at her table sits, been considered that they have not Homer and Virgil quotes, and weighs attained that “ bad eminence" on actheir wits;
count of any very meritorious transAnd pities Dido's agonizing fits.
actions. An Icelandic legend, in. She has so far th' ascendant of the board,
deed, represents Máni, the MoonThe prating pedant puts not in one word:
god, as having kidnapped two child. The man of law is nonplust in his suit; ren when engaged in the innocent Nay, every other female tongue is mute.
occupation of drawing water from Hammers and beating anvils, you would
a river, and they are still seen to swear,
follow him in their new abode with And Vulcan with his whole militia there. Tabors and trumpets, cease ; for she
a water-cask slung on a pole over
their shoulders. alone
But the favourite Is able to redeem the labouring moon.
idea is that the man in the moon is Er'n wit's a burden when it talks too
a sort of transported felon, who is long :
paying there the penalty of theft, But she who has no continence of tongue,
aggravated by Sabbath-breaking, Should walk in breechos, and should committed here below. Pagan trawear a beard,
ditions have in this instance, as in And mix among the philosophic herd. others, engrafted themselves on a scrip01 what a midnight curse has he, whose tural history: the man who, in the sido
book of Numbers, is related to have Is pestered with a mood and figure bride! been stoned to death for gathering
m Let mine, ye gods, if such must be my
fate, cit No logic learn, nor history translate ;
But rather be a quiet humble fool. Ia. I hate a wife to whom I go to school,
Who climbs the grammar tree, distinctly dit knows
Where noun and verb and participle
grows : Corrects her country neighbour ; and
For breaking Priscian's, breaks her dit husband's head.”
A superstitious personification connected with what we have now been
considering, but somewhat different in 20.
its nature, is to be found in the popu zis,
lar imagination of the Man-in-the ada
Moon. This fiction has sprung out of those appearances which, to vulgar and unaided eyes, present under an
aspect so much less sublime the same nte luminary
whose orb cta Thro' optic glass the Tuscan artist views,
At evening from the top of Fesolé, ne
Or in Valdarno, to descry new lands,
Rivers or mountains in her spotty globe." ias
The existence of a man in the moon, or of more than one, was a popular
belief long before Fontenelle wrote læ.
kins his discourse to prove the proba
Plurality of Worlds, or Bishop Wil
bility of the moon's being inhabited,
ed different accounts of the history id; and character of the personages, one and or more, who occupy so conspicuous a
position; and generally speaking, it has Is, been considered that they have not ghs attained that “ bad eminence" on ac
count of any very meritorious trans
actions. An Icelandic legend, in-rd, deed, represents Máni, the Moonrd: god, as having kidnapped two child.
ren when engaged in the innocent te occupation of drawing water from
a river, and they are still seen to
follow him in their new abode with
a water-cask slung on a pole over
But the favourite
committed here below. Pagan tra.
book of Numbers, is related to have le! been stoned to death for gathering
sticks on the Sabbath day, having been When frost doth freeze, much ch first branded by our ancestors with the he abide, additional crime of theft, and then The keen edge of the thorns translated to the moon to remain as a
ments teareth. prominent and perpetual admonition None wot when he doth sit in th to deter others from committing the
wide, like offences in time coming:
Nor, save it be the hedge, wha
he weareth. The earliest 'notice of this precise form of the tradition that we have met with, occurs in an old song
Whither, I pray, his way doth ti
take, upon the man in the moon, which
With foot thus forward set fro is to be found in “ Ritson's Ancient Songs and Ballads," and which must, Nothing is ever seen bis pace to s we suppose, be placed at least as far
He is the slowest man that back as the end of the thirteenth
It is somewhat disjointed He hath been to the field picking and obscure, and often, we suspect, To fence his door-way with a unintelligible even to better antiquaries thorn ; than we profess to be; but as a curi. If of his axe no better use he ma! osity, we insert the three first verses His long day's labour must be all of it, with an attempt to paraphrase them laxly in more modern language. How could the man so wondrous hig “ Mon, in the mone, stond and streit,
Or hath he in the moon been b On is bot-forke is burthen he bereth :
bred ? Hit is muche wonder that he na down slyt,
He leaneth on his fork like a gre For doute leste he valle he shoddreth
The crooked caitiff seemeth
dread: ant shereth : When the forst freseth muche chele he Long time hath he been here, t. byd,
sire; The thornes beth kene is hattren to-tereth;
But in his errand hath he nothi Nis no wytht in the world that wot wen
And now for having cut a load of
Chaucer more than once al Whider trowe this mon ha the wey take,
this conception. Thus, in He hath set is o fot is other to foren ; and Cresseide, he speaks of the For pon hithte that he hath ne sytht me
bial fear, « Leste the chorle hym ner shake,
out of the moone.' And, a He is the sloweste mon that ever wes the Testament of Creseide, de yboren.
“ the seven planets discending Wher he were o the feld pycchynde spheres” to judge between stake,
and Cupido :For hope of ys thornes to dutten is doren,
“ Next after him come Lady Cynu He mot myd is twybyl other trous make,
The last of al, and swiftest in he Other al is dayes werk ther were yloren.
Of colour blake, busked with hor This ilke mon upon heh whener he were,
And in the night she listith best Wher he were y the mone bore ant yfed.
Hawe as the leed, of colour nothi He leneth on is forke ase a grey frere,
For al the light she borowet This crokede caynard sore he is adred :
brother, Hit it is mony day go that he was here,
Titan, for of herself she hath non lchot of his ernde he nath nout ysped; He hath hewe sum wher a burthen of " Her gite was grey,
and fuld brere
blake; Tharefore cum hayward hath taken ys
And on her brest a chorle pa
Bering a bushe of thornis on his The man i' the moon doth yonder stand
Whiche for his theft might cliir and stride,
the heaven. His burden on his faggot-fork he beareth:
It is scarcely necessary to Much wonder 'tis that down he doth not
the allusions in Shakspeare slide,
same subject. Thus in the Ten He shuddereth still, for lest he fall he
“ Caliban. Hast thou not dr feareth:
" Stephano. Out o' the moon, I do as are accustomed to think of the sun as gure thee : I was the man in the moon essentially masculine, and the moon as when time was.
feminine; and looking to power as a “ Caliban. I have seen thee in her, and male attribute, and softness as a feI do adore thee. My mistress showed me male one, the distribution seems nathee, and thy dog and bush."
tural and appropriate. It is certain, The dog is an appurtenance which however, that all our Teutonic ancesprobably grew out of the rest of the tors originally reversed the rule; picture, and does not always occur in whether from regarding the more it. In the “ Midsummer Night's dazzling beauty of the solar orb, or Dream,” it is not at first alluded to as from the effect of some accidental one of the necessary properties for the mythus, it is now difficult to disperformance of this « very tragical cover. The story of the Edda is, mirth.” Quince says, “ One must that Mundilfori had two children, a come in with a bunch of thorns and a son Mani, the moon, and a daughter lanthorn, and say he comes to disfigure, Sol, the sun, who for their beauty orto present the person of Moonshine.” were set in the sky. This distribui. But when Moonshine makes his ap. tion of the sexes, however, is not conpearance, it seems to have been ar. fined to the Teutonic nations. A ranged as a matter of course that “his trace of it, so far as the moon is confaithful dog shall bear him company.” cerned, is to be found both in Greek “ Moonshine.—This lantern doth the
and in Latin. The words ury and unen,
which literally agree with our moon, the horned moon present : Myself the man i'th' moon do seem to
English long or double o being a corbe.
rect and frequent exponent of the “ Lysander:-Proceed, Moon. Greek long a or», have been com
“ Moonshine.-- All that I have to say is to monly so distinguished, that the one tell you, that the lantern is the moon; I, applies to the period of the moon's rethe man in the moon; this thorn bush, my volution, the other to the luminary thorn bush ; and this dog my dog.
itself. But a masculine moon seems “Demetrius.- Why, all these should be in to have been an idea well-known the lantern ; for they are in the moon." among the ancients. Selden (De Diis
According to the old Italian le- Syris,) refers us to a passage in gend on the subject, the man in the Strabo, “de fano T8 Mnyos Dei in Asia moon was no other than the first Minori non infrequenti ;” and in some murderer, bearing on his shoulders a places a curious opinion was adopted, bundle of thorns as a niggard offering that those men who considered the to God of the meanest product of his moon as feminine, were doomed fields. Dante alludes to this theory. to be henpecked busbands, while In the Paradiso, 2, 50, he asks :
those who took the opposite view were “Che sono i segni bui,
destined to maintain the dignity of the Di questo corpo, che laggiuso in terra
sex which they thus asserted. We Fan di Caïn favoleggiare altrui ?”
extract the article on this subject from In the Inferno, 20, 125, he again speaks
" Lunus, i, m. Deus idem qui Luna. “ Caino e le spine.”
Quamvis enim feminina voce eam appellaret, Another supposition converted the
masculum tamen putabat stulta Gentilitas. man in the moon into the innocent
Unde masculum Lunam appellat Tertull. in Isaac bearing the load of wood that
Apolog., c. 15, et Spartian. in Caracall.,
c. 7, tradit, a Carrenis præcipue, Asiæ was to have been his own funeral
populis, ita existimari, ut qui Lunam femipile on the mountains of Moriah.*
neo nomine ac sexu putaverit nuncupandam, Before passing from the mythologi.
is addictus mulieribus semper inserviat : at cal to the poetical personification of
vero qui marem deum esse crediderit, is these luminaries, we have a word to dominetur uxori, neque ullas muliebres patiasay on the grammatical gender which tur insidias. Id. ibid. c. 6. Cum hibernaret has been ascribed to them. From our Edessæ, atque inde Carras Luni dei gratiâ English and classical associations, we venisset.'
* Grimm, Mythol., 411, 412, from which much of our illustrations of these topics bas been borrowed.
as are accustomed to think of the sun as 200n essentially masculine, and the moon as
feminise; and looking to power as a and male attribute, and softness as a le. me male one, the distribution seems na
tural and appropriate. It is certain, hich however, that all our Teutonic ances
the tors originally reversed the rule; s in whether from regarding the more ght's dazzling beauty of the solar orb, or o as from the effect of some accidental - the mythus, it is now difficult to disgical cover. The story of the Edda is, must that Mundilfori had two children, a od a son Mani, the moon, and a daughter ure, Sol, the sun, who for their beauty
were set in the sky. This distribuap. tion of the sexes, however, is not con
fined to the Teutonic nations. A « his trace of it, so far as the moon is conny." cerned, is to be found both in Greek the and in Latin. The words un and easy
which literally agree with our moon, the English long or double o being a cor. rect and frequent esponent of the
Greek long a or », have been comis to monly so distinguished, that the one "; I, applies to the period of the moon's re, my volution, the other to the luminary
itself. But a masculine moon seems be in
to have been an idea well-known
among the ancients. Selden (De Dius le. Syris,) refers us to a passage the Strabo, “de fano Te Moves Dei in Asia first
Minori non infrequenti ;” and in some ers a places a curious opinion was adopted
that those men who considered the - his ory. .
those who took the opposite view were destined to maintain the dignity of the
In like manner Astoreth,
orb of day a sensitive, and al " Whom the Phæoicians called
divine existence, as any Per Astarte, Queen of Heaven, with crescent Pagan that ever worshippe horas;
When we gaze on the glories To whose bright image nightly by the moon
rise or of sunset, do we Sidonian virgins paid their vows and Copernicus ? We hope not: no songs,"
as feminine, were doomed to be henpecked busbands, while
sex which they thus asserted. We
extract the article on this subject from caks
“ Lunus, i. m. Deus idem qui Luna.
Quamvis enim feminina voce cam appellaret,
masculum tamen putabat stulta Gentilitas,
c. 15, et Spartian. in Caracall,
c. 7, tradit, a Carrenis præcipue, Asize
neo nomine ac sexu putaverit nuncupandam,
vero qui marem deum esse crediderit, is
tur insidias. Id. ibid. c. 6. Cum hibernaret
if the thought may be forgive seems also to have been sometimes we recur to the investigati classed among the male deities (see Morgagni when we behold t Selden.) But indeed, many of the of her we love. There is a pagan divinities illustrate Milton's in the domain of science, as the apposite proposition, that
that of fiction : but it is found “Spirits when they please
her highest walks, and amo
noblest followers: and the Can either sex assume, or both.”
Creation has, benignantly for h Having detained our readers pro- minds, enveloped the essential bably too long in the regions of of nature in integuments and i mythology, we come now to examine which serve at once to disguise tla some of those impersonations which and death-like anatomies which imagination, unaided by belief, has knowledge reveals, and to surbestowed upon these magnificent lights place of that ultimate beauty of heaven.
fect truth which is reserved It was the lamentation of Schiller maturity of our faculties, that a glory had here departed from
Baseless, indeed, would hau the earth, and that the cold correctness the fictions of Greece, if th of science had chilled the genial cur
power out of which they fashio rent of the heart.
god of song, could now be rega “ Wo jetzt nur, wie uns're Weise sagen, the poet or the lover of poetry
Seelenlos ein Feuerball sich dreht, ever inspiring an image or a Lenkte damahls seinen gold'nen Wagen that was worthy of so noble an Helios in stiller Majestät."
Let us see whether Helios has
shamefully cast down from his " Where, as now our wise ones have de as Schiller would have us cided,
We are mistaken if it be not Lifeless rolls a fiery-ball on high, that his glory is elevated rath Helios once his golden chariot guided
depressed by the change whi Silent and majestic through the sky."
occurred, and which has enlarg But the poet's complaint is only par- established his dominion by tially well founded. Men do not, in- it on the broad and firm founda deed, now suppose either that the sun moral truth. is a god, or that he drives a chariot ;
As we watch his gradual a and most of us are even convinced, tering advance in the east, though few of us know wby, that the not readily appear to our dazzlCopernican system is the true one.
as a prince or potentate, sur But we have a popular belief, apart by a cloudy train of followe from our scientific doctrines, and an dependents, that reflect the lu imaginative sensibility distinct from glory has shed upon them? both. The power that prompted the least, he seemed to Milton, visions of superstition is not extinct, desired to walkbut is merely modified in its operations. “ By hedge-row elms, on hillocks It remains still, as a smothered flame, Right against the eastern gate, not blazing on our hearths or conse
Where the great sun begins his st cràted on our altars, but every where
Robed in flames and amber light, lurking within its dusky embers, and
The clouds in thousand liveries di ready to be fanned into a generous
Or shall we rather say, with glow by the breath of passion or of poet, that the vicegerent poetry. It would be strange if an ob- Maker has less in him of the pr ject so familiar as the “common sun” girt by courtly attendants, the were to be often before us in an ima divinity himself receiving the ac ginative aspect. But, in conditions of of surrounding suppliants ? the mind favourable to such impulses, « Morven belongs now wholly we are still as ready to see in the great morn ;
which much of our illustrations of these topics bas
And morn's sole sovereign, the almighty who rejoices in all her beauty at the
splendour of his coming. Glorious is Surveys his kingdom with a regal eye, the vision of their nuptials : numberOn the blue, broad, and braided firmament less and lovely the offspring that Throned, while his cloud-retinue hovering shall adorn their bed! The life that hangs
we confer upon the orb of day, and In idol-worship round the fount of light
which we intertwine with the light King call him not, he is indeed a god !”
that is his essence, diffuses itself upon But the caprice of fancy, in a mo. all the objects of lower creation which dified aspect of the same objects, will his presence illumes. trace the lineaments of other and “ What soul was his, when, from the naless sublime meanings :
ked top " See, see, King Richard doth himself Of some bold headland, he beheld the sun appear,
Rise up and bathe the world in light! He As doth the blushing discontented sun
looked From out the fiery portal of the east, Ocean and earth, the solid frame of earth When he perceives the envious clouds are
And ocean's liquid mass, beneath him lay bent
In gladness and deep joy. The clouds To dim his glory, and to stain the track
were touch'd Of his bright passage to the occident.” And in their silent faces did he read The Hebrew poet sings that a ta.
Unutterable love." bernacle hath been set for the sun, Thus, too, the poet of the Seasons 6 which is as a bridegroom coming addresses the bright ruler of those out of his chamber.” He is indeed a fair vicissitudes which diversify his bridegroom, and his bride is the earth, immortal song:
“ The very dead creation from thy touch
Assumes a mimic life. By thee refined,
Restless, reflects a floating gleam.” Take yet another example of this diffusive happiness, not limited to the hour of morning :
“ There was not, on that day, a speck to stain
The azure heaven ; the blessed Sun, alone,