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vends* or pardoned rebels,) by ne. The consequences of this impruglecting to advance to their support; dent act of severity remain inscribed but he exerted himself to the utmost on the broad page of Ottoman history. to rally his flying troops, and narrow. The two brothers of the slaughtered ly escaped being taken prisoner in at, chief, who succeeded to his authority tempting to cover the retreat with a over their native tribe, instantly quita small corps which remained firm, is. ted the army, and returning to Syria suing his orders from a camel-litter, at the head of 30,000 men, openly as he was too weak to sit on horse. threw off their allegiance to the Porte, back. When all was irretrievably and commenced the geat revolt of lost, he mounted the foot soldiers who Syria, of which Cicala was singularly were still with him on the baggage- unfortunate in being thus the author, dromedaries, and thus succeeded, with as his punishment of the firaris at two thousand men, in reaching Wan, the battle of Keresztes had previously whither the wrecks of the routed army led to the rebellion of Anatolia. The had preceded him. Among the other latter insurrection, indeed, had never leaders here assembled, he found Jan. been completely suppressed : though poulad-Hassan, a powerful Koordish the removal of the two original leaders chief whom he had a short time before had for a time stifled its progress, nominated to the pashalikt of Aleppo, it speedily revived under Kalenderand who, having heard of the defeat of Oghlu and his lieutenants, who were the grand army when on his march at even at this time devastating the pro. the head of the Syrian contingent to vinces along the shores of the Ægean; join it, had retrograded to Wan, and and the communication into which there waited the arrival of the com- they speedily entered with the insurmander-in-chief. Though warned of gents of Syria, kindled throughout the his danger from the wrath of the se. Asiatic dominions of the Porte the raskier, exasperated by his recent flames of a civil war which, after suboverthrow-Jan-poulad replied, with sisting through nearly the whole reign the characteristic pride of a Koord, of Ahmed, was at last only quenched, that so far from his having any punish- by the extermination of the vanquishment to apprehend, Cicala would not ed party. But the history of this even dare to have him awakened if struggle does not belong to the life of he heard that he was asleep! and in Cicala, whose eventful career was now his first interview, he boldly claimed drawing to a close. The defeats which credit for having saved so large a he had sustained, and the apprehenforce from sharing the fate of the sion of the consequent downfal of his rest of the army. But the fierce tem- interest at the Porte, weighed heavily per of Cicala, inflamed to fury by his on his proud spirit, and aggravated misfortunes, could little endure to be the malady under which he had been further chafed by the haughty bearing previously suffering ; and on the reof the Koord, who fearlessly retorted treat from Wan to Diarbekir, which the vehement reproaches with which the proximity of the Persians and he was assailed for his delay in re- the insubordination of his remaining pairing to headquarters, till the seras. troops had rendered necessary, “ he kier, yielding to the impulse of his died," says Naima, “ of a fever, which anger, ordered the head of Jan-poulad the thoughts of his misfortunes had to be struck off in front of his tent; occasioned.” † The Portuguese De -a sentence which was immediately Govvea, who was then present as an executed.
envoy in the Persian camp, states, less
* " It is remarkable that those who fell in these actions were, for the most part, those who had been very lately engaged in rebellion against the Porte, but who were now, by the retributive justice of Providence, made to wash off their guilt in fountains of blood !"
+ The power of appointing and changing the governors exceeded the ordinary powers of a Seraskier, but it appears to have been specially conferred on Cicala. The nomi. nation of Jan-poulad, the chief of a native tribe, to a government, was a direct violation of established usages, and is commented upon as such by Turkish writers.
Von Hammer places his death Dec. 5, A. D. 1605, corresponding to the 21st of Hajeb, Anno Hegiræ, 1014. Naima says that he died on the 21st of Dhul-Hajja in the same year, which would be in April, 1606; but this is probably an oversight, as he certainly died in the winter after his defeat.
e. The consequences of this imprut; dent act of severity remain inscribed st on the broad page of Ottoman history.
The two brothers of the slaughtered its chief, who succeeded to his authority
over their native tribe, instantly quit
ted the army, and returning to Syria er, at the head of 30,000 men, openly e. threw off their allegiance to the Porte, ly and commenced the geat revolt of 70 Syria, of which Cicala was singularly e. unfortunate in being thus the author, th as his punishment of the firaris at 11, the battle of Keresztes had previously ny led to the rebellion of Anatolia. The er latter iusurrection, indeed, had never m. been completely suppressed: though sh the removal of the two original leaders ze had for a time stifled its progress, 0, it speedily revived under Kalenderof Oghlu and his lieutenants, who were at even at this time devastating the proto vinces along the shores of the Ægean; nd and the communication into which m. they speedily entered with the insurof gents of Syria, kindled throughout the e Asiatic dominions of the Porte the mt flames of a civil war which, after subth sisting through nearly the whole reigu 1, of Ahmed, was at last only quenched h. by the extermination of the vanquishoted party. But the history of this if struggle does not belong to the life of in Cicala, whose eventful career was now ed drawing to a close. The defeats which
he bad sustained, and the apprehension of the consequent downfal of his
interest at the Porte, weighed beavily is on his proud spirit, and aggravated be the malady under which he had been ng previously suffering ; and on the reed treat from Wan to Diarbekir, which ch the proximity of the Persians and
probably, that having information of life, in fact, is an epitome of te the disgrace which was about to over riod of transition between the take him from Constantinople, he an
state in which his first entran ticipated the arrival of the Sultan's the page of history finds the Ot mandate by poisoning himself with the power, and the scene of divisic powder of diamonds ; but suicide was gradual decay which was comme neither in accordance with the cha at his death, and in the events racter of Cicala, nor with the practice introduced this change, the acti of the Moslems in any age; and there no individual fill a more pror can be little doubt that the story ori- part than his. In military ca ginated in the reluctance of the monk and undaunted personal coura to describe this dreaded enemy of both was surpassed by no Turkish g the Persians and the Christians as of his time; but the bad fortune dying by a natural death.
the insubordination of his remaining 3. troops had rendered necessary," he is died,” say3 Naima, “of a fever, which ad the thoughts of his misfortunes had t; occasioned.”The Portuguese De y Govvea, who was then present as an
envoy in the Persian camp, states, less
marked the close of his caree The character of this famous rene drawn upon him the severe ar gade is sufficiently pourtrayed in his versions of the Ottoman bisto actions. On the fiery temperament and Naima, whose work has b and enterprising genius of an Italian, often quoted, sums up his charac he had engrafted the obstinacy of declaring, “ that his avarice kn purpose and disregard of bloodshed in bounds, and that his continuallythe execution of his designs which dis-. ging governors from one place tinguish his adopted country; but the other, as in the case of Jan-p excess to which he carried this inflex. whom he made governor of ibility was better adapted to the pre- contrary to the usages of the e ceding age than to that in which he was productive of more evils t. lived, and occasioned many misfor. can mention.” De Govvea, tunes both to himself and the empire. contrary, declares that the de Accustomed in his early youth to see this great general, who was d military subordination enforced upon alike for his prowess and for bi both soldiers and officers by the com terate hostility to those of a di manding genius of the great Soliman, faith, was hailed as a joyful eve he refused to adapt himself to the re- by the Christians in Turkey, fractory and tumultuous spirit which the foreign enemies of the Po crept in among the spahis and jani “ but," adds the monk, “ God zaries during the succeeding reigns, a merciful father to his childre and which required rather to be guid. is ever wont to break and dest ed by tact and soothed by concession, instruments of punishment wb than curbed by rigid severity. His has used to correct them!”
[STANZAS SUGGESTED UNDER THE FLAG OF THE MARBLE ARCH OF THE QE
PALACE, THE EVENING OF WEDNESDAY, JUNE 10, 1840.]
By B. SIMMONS.
fell in these actions were, for the most part,
in rebellion against the Porte, but who were Jence, made to wash off their guilt in fountains
can shout to the skies, while up-gazing at thee,
ng the governors exceeded the ordinary powers
NO. CCXCVII, VOL, Xlvitt,
In vain to the vultures of treason she wore
* Henry the Great (of Navarre), like his unfortunate descendant, fell by the stroke of the assassin.
† Vide Blackwood's Magazine for March 1840.
3. aph !_Red Murder display'd ghter in vain in thy shade; e through the battle thou'st been otected thy Queen.
4. of treason she wore ne all guiltless of gore;
of their cloudless-eyed child, -f the universe smiled.
5. and the bridal avail, ve's coming solicitude pale, freemen, wherever she moved, Islands—the Crown'd and the Loved!
6. - Triumph to Peace, 'twas decreed zime-deluged nations should bleed; errible shadow, Whitehall, fell, see the Merciful fall.
7. t flashes ! Ha! well may the blood xe-Coburg, flush out in a floodsheds life like a river. rre and De Berri for ever. *
8. o'er the West's mighty water; for thy sceptreless daughter ; repit Oppression are whirl'd, ain on the world!
9. urt was the hand, and if on
though regal, has gone, nd the
gratitude solely, he Holy, the Holy!
10. e to one day our emotion :ms are bulwark'd by ocean, the puissance divine Lily, the last of her line !
11. Fell may thy blazonry shake! arble magnificence break ances were lightning of old ressy and Agincourt rollid !
12. 1t while the green earth is ringing, ghtly and noble are bringing dant exultingly back, hose of the heart in her track,
13. ng the harp left unstrung er bridal's high brilliancy rung, t raised by lofty and lowly, -the Holy, the Holy !
HAVING, in a former article, attempt- and those of the Indian and I ed to explain, and illustrate by familiar nations give it also a place, th or forcible examples, the feelings by place, perhaps, of less promine which personification is prompted, we importance. proceed to consider some of the prin It is worth while to notice cipal objects on which it may be most the more curious fables, by w successfully employed.
natural phenomena of these h It was impossible that the eye either bodies have been arrayed in of poetry or of superstition could be pable and living shape. turned to the heavens, and could behold That Osiris, though also, F the brightest corporeal reflections of the embodying other and profound Divine effulgence, without conveying ginations, was, partially at to the heart those feelings of awe, ad personification of the sun, as I miration, and love, which so strongly bably was of the moon, seems tend to invest their objects with per mit of little doubt; and the E sonality. Accordingly, in most sys. festival which celebrated the s tems of mythological religion, the sun loss and recovery of their and moon appear to have held an emi. ferred, as it is thought, to the nent place under various and manifold and return of the sun before a forms of deification. In the Greek the winter solstice. The sa and Roman pantheons we meet not gious rite, with the same mean only with Helios and Selené, Sol and tended into Phænicia, and ul Luna, as the avowed impersonations into Greece. Thammuz, or of the great lights of heaven, but with was the altered name under w many other divinities who are types of great source of light and the same luminaries, or of the prin- lamented by the Phænician i ciples involved in their essence. Apollo as annually suffering an appa and Artemis, Janus and Diana, Bacchus cline of his power that see and Ceres,* have been respectively threaten dissolution, though s united together, as representing those ceeded by a glad revival and glorious powers which are set on high ation. We all remember Mil to rule over the day, the night, and lusion to that ceremony, of w the year, and to diffuse life, and plenty, licentious and idolatrous per and gladness through the habitations had infected even the house of men. A tendency of a similar kind dah:seems, at least latterly, to have con.
" Thammuz came next verted the heroic Hercules, with his
Whose annual wound in Lebanor twelve labours, into a shadow of the
The Syrian damsels to lament his god of day in his progress through the
In amorous ditties all a summer's twelve divisions of the zodiac. The
While smooth Adonis from his nat ancient Persians paid homage to the Ran purple to the sea, supposed wsun under the name of Mithras, inter
Of Thammuz yearly wounded : preted we believe to mean, the Great
tale One-as appearing to the vulgar to be Infected Şion's daughters with lik the manifested form, and to the intel
Whose wanton passions in the ligent to be the most impressive image, porch of the true Godhead. The Egyptian Ezekiel saw,* when, by the visio and Syrian systems, were in a great His eye survey'd the dark idolata degree founded upon the same basis ; Of alienated Judah."
Vos, O'clarissima mundi Lumina, labentem coelo quæ ducitis annum, Liber et alma Ceres.”— Virgil, Georgic. i. 5. “ Ye glorious lights of life! that guide on high The gliding year's glad progress through the sky,
Bacchus and bounteous Ceres!" † Ezek, viii. 14, et seq.
ike his unfortunate descendant, fell by the stroke of
The moral of this tale seems to have of polish'd ivory was the covering found a fainter echo on the shores of wrought; Greece, where the voice of fancy The matter vied not with the sculptor's added its own inventions, or its appli. thought; (!) cations of historical tradition to the For in the portal was display'd on bigb, original metaphor. Venus, a type of (The work of Vulcan) a fictitious sky; nature, or of the fertile earth, still la. A waving sea the inferior earth embraced, mented annually the death of Adonis ; And gods and goddesses the water but his revival seems generally to bave
graced." been lost sight of, and, according to The day-god himself is well reprethe story adopted by Ovid, he was sented, and encircled with an appro. converted into a flower. But traces of priate train of attendants. the original import of the fiction are to
" Purpureâ velatus veste sedebat be found in other versions of it, wuch « In solio Phæbus, claris lucente smadivided the possession of Adonis be- .
ragdis.* tween Venus and Proserpine, giving A dextrâ lævâque Dies, et Mensis, et hiin to each of them for six months in
Annus, the year; a distribution which can Seculaque, et positæ spatiis æqualibus scarcely be considered as unconnected
Horæ : with the annual variations of the sun's Verque novum stabat, cinctum florente apparent orbit.
coronâ ; The manner in which the classical Stabat nuda Æstas, et spicea serta gerefabulists adapted the sun's diurnal jour. bat; ney to human conceptions, is familiar Stabat et Autumnus, calcatis sordidus uvis, to all in the Ovidian story of Phaeton; Et glacialis Hiems, canos hirsuta capillos.' where the whole costume and demoan. « The God sits high exalted on a throne our of the solar god are depicted in Of blazing gems, with purple garments on; the most brilliant colours, and with the The Hours in order ranged on either hand, most plausible consistency of contriv. And Days and Months and Years and ance. We may be allowed to extract Ages stand. some passages from it, which aro most Here Spring appears with flowery chaplets pertinent to our prosent discussio.2, bound; though we wish we could subjoin a Here Summer in her wheaten garland translation less pointless and prosaic crown'd; than that oi Addison. The descrip. Here Autumn the rich trodden grapes bea tion of the sun's palace is like a vision smear; from the Arabian nights :
And hoary Winter shivers in the rear.” “ Regia solis erat sublimibus alta co. The reception of Phaeton by bis ce. lumnis
lestial father contains a trait which Clara micante auro flammasque imitante has often been admired as natural and pyropo :
pleasing, if it do not rather belong to Cujus ebur nitidum fastigia summa tenebat; the category of “ pretty." Argenti bifores radiabant lumine valvæ. Materiam superabat opus; nam Mulciber
“ Dixerat. At genitor circum caput illic
omne micantes Æquora celárat, medias cingentia terras,
Deposuit radios, propiusque accedere Terrarumque orbem, cælumque quod im
jussit." minet orbi.
The tender sire was touch'd with what he Cæruleos habet unda Deos."
said, • The sun's bright palace on high columns
And flung the blaze of glories from his
head; raised, With burnish'd gold, and flaming jewels
And bid the youth advance.blazed;
The description given by Sol of his The folding gates diffused a silver light, daily progress through the heavens, And with a milder gleam refresh'd the can scarcely be called sublime, besight;
cause it is framed on a principle the
* Compare this with Milton's still more glowing description, and remember that Ovid was a favourite with him :
“High on a throne of royal state, which far
Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind,