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scue, calculated to secure his tenure of uish, office :4" in fact,” (says Naima,) - and " when we consider that the late glo. Iered rious victory had been gained under
day the auspices of Ibrahim, it was not ene: to be expected that Jag balah-Zadah the would much enjoy his promotion.”
by During the whole of the night which I the followed the battle of Keresztes, the alists tabul-khani or imperial kettle-drums Est to had been sounded without intermission - the to recall to the camp the timariots and their other troops who had fled from the eded field in the early part of the engage. f de ment: and the grand-vizir Ibrahim e left had caused proclamation to be made, aped that in consideration of the triumph their which had eventually crowned the the Moslem arms, no enquiry should be riots held on account of their abandonment pan- of their colours. But this leniency was - and highly disapproved of by Cicala, who had their been trained in thestern schoolof Osman ying of the iron nerves and Khoja-Sinan. - the A panic flight, like that which the day cala, of Keresztes had witnessed, (though atfall common in the irregular armies of field Asia, and abundantly frequent in the non, subsequent military annals of the
Turks themselves,) had hitherto never attle, disgraced the strict discipline of an pect. Ottoman army, and the new vizir de. lists, clared his determination to preserve
and the military institutions of the empire tude in unimpaired efficiency by the signal ears, punishment of all the offenders. Three him days were occupied in the investigacon- tion; the whole army was passed in d to review; and no fewer than 30,000, thus principally Asiatic troops, being proThe nounced to have fled from their stand
pay fol. ards, were mulcted of their reci allowances, and stigmatized with the non name of firaris, or runaways. Many
of those who were present were forth2, at with decapitated in front of the army,
and among these Naima particularly him, notices Yunus Aga, the commandant rime of an oda of janizaries, in whose tent
successively of Aleppo and Egypt, on the least influential of the caus
premiership on the death of The Sultan Mohammed, indolent word from her now sufficed and voluptuous in the intervals of his the removal of Cicala. The S fits of ferocity, was solicitous only to quitted the army for the capit withdraw himself as soon as possible he was encountered on his ro from the perils of the campaign, (the Adrianople by the favourite only one he ever made,) and appears his mother, bearing her con to have at first acquiesced supinely in tions on the victory of Keres the arbitrary proceedings of his mini. the expression of her disap ster; but the tidings of these sweeping at the new appointment ; changes were not received in the pro- sooner," (says a cotemporary vinces with equal indifference. The historian,)“ were the imperi Tartars at once refused to receive ions pitched for the halt, Fateh-Kherai as their khan, and tchaoosh was dispatched to broke out into an open revolt, which to deprive the Vizir Jaghala ended in the murder of that prince by of the ensigns of office, and the adherents of his rival Ghazi : and with them Ibrahim- Paslia, the consequences of the disgraces and been his predecessor.' forfeitures inflicted on the firaris of The fall of Cicala was foll Keresztes were still more disastrous. his exile to Ak-shehr, in Many of these troops, knowing the where he resided in retirem fate which awaited them at headquar- mazul, (a term employed to ters, had disbanded and returned to a deposed employé.) The their Asiatic homes, where they con Belgrade, and others who tinued to retain their timars, or fiefs, instrumental to his elevatio in defiance of the edict of sequestra- in his disgrace; the mollah tion : and though this obnoxious mea deen, who had trusted to hi sure was tacitly suffered to fall into ency over his royal pupil abeyance when Cicala lost the grand- him against all reverses, vizirat, the disaffection which it en spared on his solemn renun gendered was one of the principal future interference in polie germs of the great Asiatic rebellion even the nishandji, or priva which broke out three years later tary of the Sultan, who ha under Kara Yazidji † and his brother official despatch announcing Delhi-Hassan, and which, renewed tory, been lavish in his enco from time to time, under different Cicala, atoned by the loss of leaders, continued for more than for his praises of the fallen twenty years to convulse and desolate “ In fact," (says Naima,) that portion of the empire, and was not Jaghalah was a man of the
the Sultan had sought shelter in the mit confusion which followed the battle ; civil thus, according to Oriental notions, conoven tracting the ties of hospitality with the
in unfortunate officer: others, who had ies, not come up after the battle, were put the to the ban, and, presenting themselves Tud on the faith of the proclamation of Ibraalar him, were led instantly to execution. om- Sobrab-Pasha, an aged and meritonot rious officer, who had been governor
* The khans of the Crimea, although always of the line of Jenghiz, re ensigns of royalty from the Ottoman emperor, as lord paramount. They sionally deposed and banished by the same authority, but never put to deat the single instance of Mobammed, who was beheaded by Osman-Pasha Oz rebellion, as noticed above, twelve years before this period.
# He is called by Knolles, and other European writers, “ the Scrivan Yazidji implies “the black secretary."
Tartar prince of the blood, and ranked next to, Sept. No. last year,
tinguished courage and gallantry, he backe againe, sent her honourably acwas remorseless and cruel, and his companied abourd the admirall gally : heart knew no pity : thus his reckless whom Cicala, her sonne, received with and uncompromising severity against great joy and triumph, and having the unfortunate firaris had turned kept her with him one day with all the against him the hearts of all the sol. honour that might be, according to his diery, and every rank and degree re- promise, sent her backe againe to joiced at the restoration of Ibrahim." Messina ; and so, without any harme But, notwithstanding his unpopula. done for her sake to any part of rity, his services were too valuable to Christendome, peaceably returned be long dispensed with ; in the fol. backe againe with his fleet." lowing year, (1597,) he was recalled The only naval service of importto Constantinople, and reinstated in ance which Cicala appears to have his old station of capitan-pasha, and performed during his second tenure vizir of the divan; and his restoration of the capitan-pashalik, was the frus. to oflice was signalized by the equip. trating, by his appearance with a ment of a bashtarda, or imperial fleet of fifty sail, the attack meditated galley, carrying sixteen ranks of oars, in 1802 on Tunis and Algiers, by the with eight rowers in each, which was Christian squadrons under Doria and launched in the presence of the Sultan, Don Juan de Cordova ; and the cir. and appropriated to his use. By this cumstances of the Ottoman empire, piece of courtly magnificence, and by distracted by dissensions in the cabinet well-timed gifts administered to the and revolts in the provinces, concurred avarice of the Sultana-Walidah, his with the civil wars between the Emfavour at the seraglio was completely peror Rodolph and his brother Matre-established ; and his interests were thias in the Austrian territories, in further secured by a reconciliation, reducing the war of Hungary on both which was not long after effected be. sides to an affair of outposts, which left tween Saad-ed-deen, then restored to no opportunity for distinction in the favour and promoted to the venerable tield; while the intrigues of Cicala's office of mufti, and Ibrahim, who after enemies in the divan, where they were a second dismissal, became, in 1599, again in the ascendant since the death for the third time, grande vizir of the of the Vizir Ibrahim, called all his empire.
address into requisition in order to The disappointment of Cicala in a maintain his ground. The triumphant former attempt to remove his family progress of the rebel Kara-Yazidji in to Constantinople, and the vengeance Anatolia, where he assumed the style which he wreaked on the neighbour. of a monarch and issued firmans ing shores, have been already related : against such governors as refused to his partial success in a second effort submit to his authority, afforded a has been noticed by both Turkish and tangible ground of accusation against Christian writers, and forms a singular the capitan-pasha, to whose severities episode in his wild and devious career. in Hungary the beginning of the inIn the summer of 1598, after making surrection was ascribed ; and the via his annual circuit of the Archipelago, zir Hassan. Yemishdji (the fruiterer) and collecting the tribute of the Greek loudly demanded from the Sultan the islands, he suddenly changed his head of Cicala, as the prime cause of course from the coast of the Morea; and the calamities of the empire. But appearing with all his force off Sicily, while Yemishdji was exerting all his sent a flag of truce into the harbour influence to procure the ruin of his of Messina, requesting the viceroy to opponent, his own downfal had been allow him at least an interview with already determined on. The suspicions his mother, whom he had never seen of Mohammed, whose jealous cruelty since he was first carried to Constan. increased as his health declined, had tinople : « and the viceroy again con- been roused by the popularity of the sidering," to quote the plain but for- vizir with the janizaries, and the uncible language of old Knolles, “how bounded control which he arrogated that the angrie renegat, for the like to himself over all departments of the courtesie to him at another time be- state: in the mind of a monarch, who fore denied, had in his rage done great had not long before directed the harme all alongst the sea coast; cove- execution of his eldest son, Mahmood, nanting with him to send her in safetie lest the martial temperament of the
Chapter of Turkish History. [July,
he backe againe, sent her honourably ac. his companied abourd the admirall gally: less whom Cicala, her sonne, received with inst great joy and triumph, and having ned kept her with him one day with all the sol- honour that might be, according to his
re promise, sent her backe againe to
to Christendome, peaceably returned
ance which Cicala appears to have
Christian squadrons under Doria and an, Don Juan de Cordova ; and the cir. chis cumstances of the Ottoman empire,
by distracted by dissensions in the cabinet the and revolts in the provinces, concurred his with the civil wars between the Em. ely peror Rodolph and his brother Matere thias in the Austrian territories, in on, reducing the war of Hungary on both be. sides to an affair of outposts, which left to
no opportunity for distinction in the
address into requisition in order to
ily progress of the rebel Kara-Yazidji in
of Mobammed, whose jealous cruelty
been roused by the popularity of the
bounded control which he arrogated
state: in the mind of a monarch, who at had not long before directed the
execution of his eldest son, Mahmood, ie lest the martial temperament of the
young prince might lead him to aspire arms of Shah Abbas; and g prematurely to the throne, there was provements had been introd but little interval between suspicion the warlike institutions of th and punishment; and Hassan-Yemish- by three English travellers, dji was suddenly seized and strangled brated brothers Shirley, who in the gardens of the seraglio, a few to have first instructed the Pe weeks only before the termination (Dec. the management of artillery 1603) of the short and inglorious armies of Persia had previo reign of Mahommed III.
sisted almost entirely of the The insurrection in Asia Minor had of the different tribes, led to been quelled for the time by the death their khans, and entirely unac of Kara-Yazidji and the defection of with tactics or mancuvring ; his brother Delhi-Hassan, who had ' fiery gallantry had more th purchased a pardon by submission, made them successful, when and had been appointed to the distant under the eye of their mona pashalik of Bosnia: but a still more their hereditary chiefs aga dangerous enemy had arisen in that stubborn valour and superi quarter. Shah Abbas had availed him- pline of the Turks ; but the r self of the disordered state of the fron rolment by Abbas, under the tier provinces to attack the Porte in of the Shirleys, of a body o 1601; Tabreez and Erivan had fallen djis, or musketeers, and the into his hands at the outset of the war; gholam.i. Shah, or royal gua: and he was rapidly reconquering the gave him the disposal of a territories which, eleven
years before, which he could place more he had given up to the Turks. Both reliance, than on the tumulti the pride and the fanaticism of the formed by the nobles and Osmanlis were awakened by this in- lowers, and enabled him to ad vasion : the Oulemah issued a fetva more equal terms to the ence or decree, declaring that the death of the redoubtable janizaries of a Persian schismatic by the sword of tinople. an orthodox believer was more accept The arrangements conseqy able in the sight of Heaven than that new reign, prevented Cicala of seventy Christians! and as the continued in the post of capita laurels gained by Cicala in the last from leaving the capital till la war with Persia apparently pointed summer of 1604, when he repa him out as the commander best quali. a large body of janizaries to fied to conduct the present contest, and there took the command his appointment, soon after the acces merous but disorderly army sion of the young sultan Ahmed,* as proportion of which consisted generalissimo of the armies against who had been implicated in Persia, was universally hailed as an revolts under Delhi-Hassan, omen of success against “the auda- received a pardon on conditio cious sheahs, who had presumed to joining the forces destine break the peace so lately granted against the heretics of Pers them." But both the political and Shah was engaged in pres military condition of Persia, in the in- siege of Kars, then, and nov terval which had elapsed since the portant fortress on the fro last war, had undergone a change Anatolia ; but his forces were which rendered her a far more formi. rior in number to risk a ge dable antagonist than formerly: the tion ; and, on the arrival incursions of the Uzbeks and Turk whose prowess in the former mans had been victoriously repelled, made his name well known a and the refractory tribes in the intes Persians, he retreated rapid rior of the kingdom reduced by the breez, which he was suffered
* Ahmed was the first of the Ottoman line who mounted the throne with previously held the government of a province, being only fourteen at the de father : his sparing the life of his brother Mustapha, who afterwards succe (thus breaking for the first time the continuous series of succession from son,) was another unprecedented exception to established usages.
† “ The Persians,” says De Govvea "' feared Cigala more than a whol army."
unmolested. The Turkish officers in the numbers and discipline of the vain urged the seraskier to pursue and Ottomans gave them gradually the crush the retiring “ rabble of kuzzil. advantage; till, in the middle of the bashes," (as an Osmanli historian con- summer, Cicala issued orders for a temptuously calls them), before they general advance of all his divisions on recovered from their panic; and the Tabreez, the recovery of which would brave Sefer, beglerbeg of Erzroom, have enabled him to execute his avow. offered, if he were allowed to take only ed design of marching into the interior the élite of the cavalry, to bring the of Persia. Contrary to the advice of Shah bound hand and foot to head his counsellors, Abbas determined to quarters ; but Cicala was deaf to both hazard a decisive engagement for the arguments and entreaties, and, alleging defence of this important city; and as a reason for his inaction the ad. having strengthened his army by revanced season, and the necessity of calling his favourite general Ali.Verdi awaiting the junction of the Pasha of Khan from the siege of Bagdad, con. Wan, suffered the golden opportunity fronted the Turkish army (Aug. 10) to escape. He now announced his in on the banks of the lake of Tabreez. tention of leading the army into win. The tactics usually adopted by the ter-quarters in Shirwan, where his own Ottomans in their great battles with son, Mahmood-pasha, was governor, the Persians, and with other Asiatic and thus preventing the Shah, by the armies, consisting principally of ca. fear of a movement on his flank, from valry, differed in some degree from advancing from Tabreez till the spring. those employed against the more reBut the troops rose in open mutiny, gular armies of Europe; and as the and, exclaiming, “ When Cicala was present engagement was in a great capitan-pasha he went with the fleet measure decided by the peculiarities to Messina to visit his mother, and of this order of battle, it nierits a parnow that he is seraskier, must he go at ticular description. Their long series the head of his army to visit his son?” of field artillery (of which the Per.. declared their determination to winter sians, before the travels of the Shirleys, in Anatolia, and not in the inhospi- were almost entirely destitute) was table and half-subdued territory of ranked in front of the position, and Shirwan. The seraskier attempted to the guns were frequently secured to coerce the refractory troops; but they one another by massive chains,* to overthrew his pavilions by cutting the guard against any sudden onset which tent-ropes, (a usual mode among might penetrate the intervals of the Turkish soldiers of expressing their line. The heavy fire of the ordnance dissatisfaction with their general ;) and was supported by the musketry of the Cicala, finding himself compelled to janizaries, whose odas or regiments, forego the project of advancing into drawn up in steady array behind the Shirwan, sent the army into canton cannon, with their flanks protected by ments on the frontiers of Anatolia, the squadrons of spabis or regular persisting with characteristic obsti. cavalry, formed the main strength of nacy in establishing his own head. the Turkish battle: while a countless quarters at the advanced position of swarm of Tartars, and other irregu. Wan, till the forays of the Persian lars, thrown out in advance as skirlight troops, who ravaged the country mishers, served to bear the first impeup to the walls of the town, rendered tuous shock of the enemy, or at least it necessary for him to withdraw to to exhaust their ardour and blunt the Erzroom.
edge of their weapons. It was not The campaign of 1605 opened with till the hostile forces were fatigued by a series of bloody but indecisive the slaughter, or dispersed in the pur. actions along the whole line of the suit of these worthless auxiliaries, that contested frontier, in which, however, the disciplined battalions of the Otto
* This linking together of the field-pieces is frequently alluded to in the Autobiography of the Mogul Emperor Baber, who calls it “ the practice of Room" or Turkey: vide pages 314 and 362 of Leyden's translation. Among the miracles related by Persian historians of Shah Ismael, the founder of the Sooffee dynasty, it is asserted that at the battle of Tchalderoon, in 1514, the huge chain connecting the Turkish cannon was severed by the holy monarch with a single blow of his scimitar!
in the numbers and discipline of the nd Ottomans gave them gradually the File advantage; till, in the middle of the
summer, Cicala issued orders for a ey general advance of all his divisions on he Tabreez, the recovery of which would an, have enabled him to execute his arow. ly ed design of marching into the interior he of Persia. Contrary to the advice of d. his counsellors, Abbas determined to th hazard a decisive engagement for the ng defence of this important city; and d. having strengthened his army by reof calling his favourite general Ali-Verdi of Khan from the siege of Bagdad, conty fronted the Turkish army (Aug. 10) 11 - on the banks of the lake of Tabreez.
The tactics usually adopted by the en Ottomans in their great battles with or, the Persians, and with other Asiatic he armies, consisting principally of ca. m valry, differed in some degree from g. those employed against the more rey, gular armies of Europe; and as the as present engagement was in a great eet measure decided by the peculiarities nd of this order of battle, it nierits a par. at ticular description. Their long series of field artillery (of which the Per
. er sians, before the travels of the Shirleys, i. were almost entirely destitute) was of ranked in front of the position, and to the guns were frequently secured to у one another by massive chains,' to ne guard against any sudden onset which
& might penetrate the intervals of the ir line. The heavy fire of the ordnance d
was supported by the musketry of the co janizaries, whose odas or regiments
drawn up io steady array behind the cannon, with their flanks protected by
the squadrons of spahis or regular 1. cavalry, formed the main strength of 7. the Turkish battle: while a countless of swarm of Tartars, and other irregu
mans were brought up to a general of another corps directed to and irresistible assault: the columns the place in the line which the of janizaries, keeping up a continual pitation of Sefer-Pasha had 1 fire during their advance, drove the cant, was mistaken for a retreat enemy from the field by the weight of other divisions, who fell back their planax ; and the victory was order; and Abbas, seeing the completed by the rapid charges of the line wavering, led a general a reserved cavalry from the wings, ous charge against their emba which frustrated any attempt on the columns. The Turks instant part of the hostile leaders to rally the way, and, unable to retreat t retreating and confused masses. Such camp, which was already in the had been the almost invariable event of Ali-Verdi, were driven fr of every great action in which the field in inextricable confusion; Turks had heretofore encountered an the ground was favourable to Asiatic opponent: and it was by this by the Persian cavalry, a terril system that the brilliant victories of nage ensued. Five pashas we Selim I. over Shah Ismael and the on the field, and as many more Mamluke sultans bad been obtained: whom was Sefer) taken pri but the organization which we have the whole artillery and materie described, calculated only to repel an routed army, with the horseta attack in front, could with difficulty treasures of the seraskier, fell i maneuvre to meet an unforeseen di. hands of the victors; and the version on the flank or rear, which of heads which were laid at the would at once deprive the main body the Persian king as trophies of the support of the principal part of arms, are said by De Govvea, the cavalry and artillery, since these an eye-witness, to have ex could not be withdrawn from the front 20,000. The glory of Abba without throwing the line into confu however, tarnished by the cru sion; and of this defect Abbas deter cution of the gallant Sefer-Pa mined to avail himself.
other Turkish officers, who w It is not easy to reconcile, in all capitated in the royal presence, points, the details of this great battle refusal to change their faith a as given by the Turkish historians, giance by entering the ser who strive to conceal or extenuate Persia. their defeat, with the Persian narra. It is not improbable that th tive in the Zubd-al- Towarikh, fol. rior generalship displayed by t lowed by Sir John Malcolm.* It ap- sian commanders in this mer pears, however, that Abbas, who had action was due to the counsels less than 70,000 men to oppose to Robert Shirley, who was in 100,000 Turks, detached a corps pre ance on the Shab, and receive viously to the engagement under Ali. wounds in the melée ; but the Verdi Khan, with orders to fall upon quences of the conduct pursue the rear of the enemy and attack their Seraskier after his defeat, we camp during the heat of the action; disastrous to the interests of th and the execution of this enterprise than even the loss of the batt was facilitated by the inconsiderate first great victory which the I ardour of Sefer. Pasha, who, rashly had ever gained over the Os pursuing to a distance from the field Cicala had been suffering dur the Persians opposed to him, left one campaign from long-continue flank of the Ottoman line uncovered. ness, which incapacitated hir At this moment Ali-Verdi made his taking any personal share attack in the rear, and several odas battle; and the Turkish bi of janizaries were detached by Cicala seem to intimate that he pu from the front to meet and repel it; sacrificed Sefer-Pasha and h but the movement of these troops and sion, (which consisted chiefi
lars, thrown out in advance as skir. y mishers, served to bear the first impe. ů tuous shock of the enemy, or at least
to exhaust their ardour and blunt the
edge of their weapons. It was not 1 till the hostile forces were fatigued by
the slaughter, or dispersed in the pure suit of these worthless auxiliaries, that ; the disciplined battalions of the Otto.
History of Persia, i. 355. 8vo edition. Malcolm appears not to have bee of the history and parentage of Cicala, though they are mentioned by almo cotemporary writer : he says that “the harsh appellation of the Turkish Jaghal.aghli" (son of Jaghala) “is softened into Cigala, by Antonio de Govre also places his death in 1607, two years later thau the true date.
eces is frequently alluded to in the Autobio
who calls it " the practice of Room" or Leyden's translation. Among the miracles ael, the founder of the Sooffee dynasty, it is on, in 1514, the huge chain connecting the monarch with a single blow of his scimitar!