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of the new commander-in-chief, Osman- gress of the Turks, which threatened Pasha, (surnamed Oz-demir, or “iron the dismemberment of the northnerves,") one of the ablest and most western Persia, required the presence indefatigable generals whose triumphs of a prince of the blood ; and Hamare recorded in the militaryannals of the zah, the valiant son of Mohammed, Osmanlis. In the nocturnal victory accordingly appeared in 1585 at the called the Battle of the Torches, gained head of the Persian forces. Reanimaover the Persians in the spring of ted by the presence of their gallant 1583, Cicala led the advanced guard prince, the Persians attacked and over. with his usual fiery intrepidity ; and threw the Ottoman advanced corps Osman marked his confidence in him under Cicala, who was on the point by intrusting to him the command of of forming the siege of Tabreez; but the main force left in Armenia, when the approach of the grand-vizir com. he himself set out at the head of the pelled Hamzah to retire before the elite on the remarkable expedition in numerical superiority of the Turks, which, after penetrating the hazardous who entered the capital of Azerbijan, defiles of the Caucasus, and crossing and subjected the inhabitants, during the frozen plains of the Kuban in the three days and nights, to all the hordepth of winter, he anticipated and rors of carnage and plunder. But no crushed by his sudden appearance the sooner had the Ottomans commenced meditated revolt of the Krim Tartars, the retreat, which the lateness of the returning in triumph, with the head season and the broken health of the of the rebel khan Mohammed, to grand vizir rendered inevitable, than Constantinople. The honours with Hamzah, resuming the offensive, hawhich his promptitude and energy rassed their exhausted columns with were rewarded have no parallel in the incessant and impetuous attacks. Ci. range of Turkish history: after his cala sustained a second defeat at Shaminterview with Mourad, he was in- Ghazan, and the Persians, penetrating vested, instead of an ordinary dress of between the Ottoman corps d'armée, honour, with robes similar to those nearly succeeded by a sudden opset worn on state occasions by the Sultan, in storming the fortified camp of the who, with his own hands, fastened an grand-vizir, who expired in his tent imperial aigrette in his turban, and the same evening, (Oct. 29, 1585.) attached to his side his own jewelled The command now devolved on ataghan :-he was escorted, on bis Cicala, who at once retrieved the lustre return to his official residence, by the of the Turkish arms, and dispelled the imperial guards; and the criers ex. shade which the defeat of Sham-Ghaacted from the multitude the homage zan had cast on him, by gaining a victory ordinarily paid to the sovereign.* A over the hitherto invincible Hamzah; few weeks later, the emblems of the after which, he led his troops into winter grand-vizirat were conferred in full quarters, at Wan, and announced by divan upon Osman, who returned with Tartar couriers to the Sultan his late augmented powers to the Asiatic com success, and the death of the grandmand; while Cicala, whose valour and vizir. The advantages gained over the capacity had been highly lauded by Persians were celebrated at Constanthe new favourite, received the third tinople by fêtes and rejoicings; but horse-tail, with the important pashaliks the confirmation of Cicala in the post of Wan and Bagdad, and the second of seraskier, or commander-in-chief, to rank in command of the army. which his services justly entitled him,

The reigning sovereign of Persia, and for which the deceased Osman, in Sultan Mohammed Khoda-bandah, the last despatches which he addressed was incapacitated, both by weakness to the Sultan, bad earnestly recomof character and an infirmity of sight mended him, was opposed by a party almost amounting to blindness, from in the seraglio, who advocated the taking an active part either in the claims of Ferhad-Pasha : and the weak government of his dominions or the Mourad, unable to decide between the conduct of his armies ; but the pro- two candidates, compromised the point

. It is impossible to avoid noticing the striking coincidence of these details with the honours paid to Mordecai, by command of Ahasuerus. Such is the immutability, in matters of ceremony, of Oriental customs.

man. gress of the Turks, which threatened iron the dismemberment of the northmost western Persia, required the presence mphs of a prince of the blood; and Ham-f the zah, the valiant son of Mohammed, ctory accordingly appeared in 1585 at the ined head of the Persian forces. Reanimag of ted by the presence of their gallant uard prince, the Persians attacked and over

and threw the Ottoman advanced corps bim under Cicala, who was on the point ad of of forming the siege of Tabreez; but when the approach of the grand-vizir comf the pelled Hamzah to retire before the n in numerical superiority of the Turks, dous who entered the capital of Azerbijan, sing and subjected the inhabitants, during

the three days and nights, to all the hor. and rors of carnage and plunder. But no

the sooner bad the Ottomans commenced tars, the retreat, which the lateness of the head season and the broken health of the 1, to grand vizir rendered inevitable, than with Hamzah, resuming the offensive, baergy rassed their exhausted columns with n the incessant and impetuous attacks. Ci. r his cala sustained a second defeat at Shams in. Ghazan, and the Persians, penetrating -ss of between the Ottoman corps d'armée

, hose nearly succeeded by a sudden onset Itan, in storming the fortified camp of the dan grand-vizir, who expired in his tent

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and the same evening, (Oct. 29, 1585.) elled The command now devolved on

his Cicala, who at once retrieved the lustre - the of the Turkish arms, and dispelled the ex.

shade which the defeat of Sham-Ghanage

zan had cast on him, by gaining a victory A over the hitherto invincible Hamzah; the after which, he led his troops into winter full quarters, at Wan, and announced by with Tartar couriers to the Sultan bis late como success, and the death of the grandand vizir. The advantages gained over the

by Persians were celebrated at ConstanChird tinople by fêtes and rejoicings; but aliks the confirmation of Cicala in the post

by appointing them both, in separate first proposals for peace, urg
khatti-shereefs, conjointly to the com a vigorously conducted invas
mand. This measure might have rected against Kazween or
been productive of disastrous results, might dissolve the fabric of
if the Persians had still been headed sian monarchy, then assailed
by the brave Hamzah : but that valiant sides by foreign and domest
prince had perished by the hand of a but these bold counsels were
private assassin, and, after his death, by the timid policy of Mour
the war was suffered to languish by the death of the capitan-pash
both sides. The helpless king Mo- year before the conclusion of
hammed sank into insignificance, when (1589,) afforded an opportuni
no longer supported by the prowess calling him from the theatre o
and counsels of Hamzah, and erelong Constantinople, where he was
abdicated, or was deposed by the in the vacant dignity, and m
nobles, in favour of the youthful of the six vizirs of the divan,
prince Abbas, afterwards justly sur. same time that the grand vir
named the Great. But the auspices once more conferred on his
under which this brilliant reign com father Sinan,
menced were far from favourable: During the remaining five
Kazween, then the capital, was threat the reign of Mourad, the Po
ened by the progress of the Turks in scene of constant intrigue bet
the west:-in the opposite quarter, partisans of Ferhad and those
the Uzbeks were rapidly subduing and the heads of the two fact
Khorassan: and the efforts of the king successively elevated to and
were distracted by the turbulence of the from the grand-vizirat: but
nobles, in whose hands he was almost ence of Cicala's wife in the
a prisoner; till under the pressure of and the personal partiality s
these accumulated difficulties, a peace wards him by the Sultan, m
was concluded with the Porte in 1590, him throughout in the capita
by which Persia ceded Tabreez with its lik: and he further secure
dependencies, Georgia, Shirwan, and by the magnificent gifts whi
all the other conquests of the Turks. return of the fleet from its

On the appointment of Ferhad as cruise, he annually presente his colleague, Cicala had retired in foot of the throne as the disgust from the grand army, to the vessels taken from the Chr districts more immediately under his the Mediterranean. So hig own government; and his subsequent favour at this period, that he share in the operations of the war ap- sumed to solicit for his bro pears to have been confined to the Viscount Charles de Cicala, subjugation of the frontier tribes of had invited from Naples to Khuzistan, and the reduction of the tinople,) the dignity either of fortress of Nahavuod, a place cele. of Moldavia or duke of Na brated as the scene of the final victory of the highest posts tenable which placed Persia under the domin pire by Christians; but th ion of the first caliphs. But the de petition was unsuccessful. spatches which he addressed to the plenitude of power, he ext Porte, (several of which are preserved care to those of his relatives in Turkish historical collections,) at remained in Christendom; an test the zeal with which he laboured ing in 1594 with the fleet of during this period for the internal im where his mother and siste provement of his pashalik, and more demanded that they should particularly for the establishment of up to him, revenging the ref communications which might facilitate governor by ravaging the the performance of the sacred duty of Sicily, and destroying, on pilgrimage enjoined on all Moslems. site coast, the town of Rheg He vehemently opposed, however, the had been sacked, on a prev

ness

cond of seraskier, or commander-in-chief, to

which his services justly entitled bim, rsia, and for which the deceased Osman, in dah, the last despatches which he addressed

to the Sultan, bad earnestly recom. right mended him, was opposed by a party From in the seraglio, who advocated the the claims of Ferhad-Pasha: and the weak the Mourad, unable to decide between the pro- two candidates, compromised the point

* The command of the fleet, though usually held by a vizir, (pasha oft did not necessarily imply the rank of more than two.

† Naxos had been in the possession of the Turks since 1516; but ti government established there and in other Ægean isles by the Venetians been altered.

the striking coincidence of these details with the od of Ahasuerus. Such is the immutability, in

oms.

sion, by the famous corsair Barba. fourth time in the vizirat; which,
rossa. The grand-vizirat was now the though again displaced for a few days
only step wanting to crown his ambie inconsequence of the ill success of the
tion; and it is probable that, on the campaign of 1595, he held, with
death or resignation of the aged Sinan, that short interval, till his death ;
(then holding the seals for the third furnishing the only instance in the
time, he would have been appointed Ottoman annals of this dignity being
to that exalted office, when the death five several times conferred on the
of the Sultan Mourad III. (Jan. 1593) same person.
disconcerted for the time his schemes Since the death of Soliman the Mag-
of aggrandizement.

nificent, his successors, almost staThe accession of Mohammed Ill. tionary in the capital, had discontinued wrought an immediate change in the the practice, which had prevailed since interior politics of the seraglio: his the foundation of the monarchy, of mother,the Sultana-Walidah Saffiyah,* heading their armies in person; and (by birth a Venetian of the noble house though, during the short reign of Se. of Baffo,) who, even during the life lim II., the glory and prosperity of of Mourad, had not abstained from in- the empire had been preserved undi. terference in public affairs, now as minished by the ministers and gensumed over the mind of her son an erals formed under the eye of his father, ascendancy which the influence of his the mischievous effects of this impolitutor Saad-ed-deen, who alone par- tic negligence were soon made mani. took with her in his confidence, could fest by the continual mutinies of the not counteract: and the nomination troops, and revolts in the distant pro. of Ferhad as grand-vizir, by her ad- vinces, (now no longer curbed by the vice, was followed by the dismissal of frequent presence of the sovereign,) Sinan and Cicala, in spite of the re- which troubled the sway of Mourad monstrances of Saad-ed-deen. But III. But Mohammed III., (who, if the administration of Ferhad was he could not lay claim to the personal neither long nor prosperous : the Sul- courage which had distinguished most tan was alarmed by incessant mutinies of his warlike forefathers, had at least of the spahis and other troops in the inherited a double portion of that sancapital, who mingled with their cla- guinary ferocity by which it was too mours for pay demands for the head often tarnished,) + declared at his acof Ferhad; and though these disor- cession his determination to check the ders were quieted for the moment by growing evil, by resuming the marthe temporary exile of Sinan and Ci- tial habits, and emulating the glories cala, who were accused of fomenting of his predecessors. This resolution them, they broke out with fresh vio is said by the Turkish historian Nai. lence after the departure of the grand- ma, to have been mainly owing to the vizir for the campaign in Hungary, counsels of Khoja-Sinan, and the ar(where a new war with the empire had guments ascribed to bim are curious: broken out in 1593 :) and the trea « If," said he, « the command.inchery of Ibrahim-Pasha, the brother- chief in the field be held by the grandin-law of the Sultan, who, under the vizir, the kaimakam will throw mask of friendship for Ferhad, was a every impediment in his way, in hopes concealed adherent of the opposite of succeeding to the vizirat on his disparty, proved fatal to the unfortunate grace: if by any other pasha, the minister. Scarcely had he reached grand vizir will 'impede "his exer, the headquarters of the army at Rud- tions lest success should recommend shuk, when the messengers of death him as his own successor: thus, no overtook him; and the wily Sinan, at good will be effected in either case !" the age of eighty, was replaced for the The execution of the Sultan's purpose

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This princess survived both her son and her grandson Ahmed I. ; and died in 1618 in the old seraglio, where she had been confioed on the accession of Ahmed. From this time, every new reign brought with it a fresh camarilla of women and . eunuchs, who controlled the sultan and the ministers, and whose good graces were courted by vizirs and pashas expectant.

† The day of his accession was commemorated by the execution of his pineteen brothers, and of all the oudalisques to whom any suspicion of pregnancy could attach; and his subsequent career was worthy of this commencement.

Barba« fourth time in the vizirat; which, w the though again displaced for a few days ambi- inconsequence of the ill success of the n the campaign of 1595, he held, with inan, that short interval, till his death; third furnishing the only instance in the inted Ottoman annals of this dignity being death five several times conferred on the 1595) same person. zemes Since the death of Soliman the Mag. nificent, his successors, almost sta

. III. tionary in the capital, had discontinued

the the practice, which had prevailed since : bis the foundation of the monarcby, of ab,* heading their armies in person; and ouse though, during the short reign of Se. - life lim il., the glory and prosperity of min. the empire had been preserved undi. - as. minished by the ministers and genn an erals formed under the eye of his father

, f his the mischievous effects of this impolipar- tic negligence were soon made maniwould fest by the continual mutinies of the ction troops, and revolts in the distant pro. - ad- vinces, (now no longer curbed by the al of frequent presence of the sovereign,

which troubled the sway of Mourad But III. But Mohammed ill., (who, if was he could not lay claim to the personal Sul- courage which had distinguished most nies of his warlike forefathers, had at least the inherited a double portion of that sancla- guinary ferocity by which it was too ead often tarnished)t declared at bis ac

cession his determination to check the by growing evil, by resuming the marDi. tial habits, and emulating the glories

re

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ng of his predecessors. This resolution io. is said by the Turkish historian Nai. ad- ma, to have been mainly owing to the wy, counsels of Khoja- Sinan, and the arad guments ascribed to him are curious: a. If," said he, the command.in. r. chief in the field be held by the grandne vizir, the kaimakam will throw a every impediment in his way, in hopes ce of succeeding to the vizirat on his dis

grace: if by any other pasha, the d grand- vizir will impede his exer1. tions lest success should recommend h him as his own successor: thus, no t good will be effected in either case !"

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was hastened by the death, early in rate resistance ; but the Turk
1596, of the “craftie old foxe" (as manders were unable to pro
Knolles quaintly terms Sinan) who remnant of the garrison from
had suggested it, as the army in Hun- of the janizaries, who, inflame
gary was thereby left without a gen. recent massacre at Hatwan
eral: the Sandjak-shereef, which, in upon them as they issued f
the last reign bad been transferred shattered fortress. Ten office
from Damascus to Constantinople, who sought refuge in the ter
was accordingly displayed for the first Tefterdar, escaped with the
time as the imperial standard, and the rest were literally hewn li
Mohammed, quitting the capital in all limb, and their mangled
the splendour of Oriental state, re strewn along the glacis of the
paired, with a numerous cortège The Archduke, who had
of pashas and generals, to the head before the overwhelming nu
quarters of the army.

the Ottomans, again advanc Cicala, whose fiery yet subtle tem- effecting a junction with the perament, was entirely congenial to rians between Teuffenbach an ihat of his old patron, had been re- for the deliverance of Agria commended by him as his successor: tragical fate of that city an but the influence of the Sultana-Wali- his movements, and he found dah prevented his attaining the en- (Oct. 24, 1596) in front of t vied dignity, and the seals were de- Turkish force on the marshy livered to Ibrahim Pasha, who had Keresztes. The following conciliated the queen-mother by se

consumed in indecisive skirr parating himself from the interests of but on the morning of the the other party. Cicala, however, ac. movement of the Turks, to companied the Sultan into Hungary, small river intersecting th and so far gained his good graces that brought on a general enga he was appointed to an important Ten thousand Turks and Tari command in the army. The interval had gained the opposite bar of confusion between the death of enveloped and cut to pieces be Sinan and the appearance of the Sul. had time to form : and the tan in the field, bad been actively em rialists, passing the stream ployed by the Imperialists in the re- fugitives, attacked the Otto duction of several frontier fortresses flank, and captured the whol in Turkish Hungary. Gran and Vis- field artillery in position. I zegrad had fallen; and Cicala was confusion now spread rapidly ordered to hasten with the advanced the Turkish ranks, the Asia corps to the relief of Hatwan, then riots fled from the field, and closely beleaguered by the Archduke zaries, left unsupported, wer Maximilian. But piqued, as it is from their position ; while said, by the rejection in a council mans, pressing on in the conf of war of the plan which he had unexpected victory, fell hea drawn up for the campaign, he exe the camp of the enemy, and cuted those orders so dilatorily that themselves to plunder the va the town was taken by assault before which it contained. But the he appeared, and the garrison and in- who witnessed the engageme habitants slaughtered without mercy canopied seat, raised on the by the Walloons and Germans. Yet camel, was restrained from so well was his favour already esta- the exhortations of Saad-ed.d blished with Mohammed, that this mis- stood at his side with the conduct passed even without reproof, his hand : the bostandjis and " a circumstance," says Naima, “ so of the seraglio defended wit marvellous as to confound the under rate valour the entrance to t standing;” and he speedily retrieved rial tents : when at this crit his military reputation by his services ture Cicala, who bad held, wi at the siege of Agria, which surren- body of cavalry a position in dered, on capitulation, after a despe of the line, and remote from

* Istuanfi (De Rebus Hungaricis, xxx. 701) asserts that Mohammed hi from the field, attended only by the spahis of his guard, and accompanied by lish ambassador (Burton); but the Turkish historians are unanimous in stati held his ground; and their candid acknowledgement of his cowardly trepidati them to some belief on this point.

The execution of the Sultan's purpose

n and her grandson Ahmed I.; and died in been confioed on the accession of Ahmed,

with it a fresh camarilla of women and he ministers, and whose good graces were

norated by the execution of his nineteen brony suspicion of pregnancy could attach; and ommencement.

of conflict, came down to the rescue, calculated to secure his tenure of trampling down victors and vanquish, office :-" in fact," (says Naima,) ed in his career across the plain, and « when we consider that the late glo. thundered on the rear of the disordered rious victory had been gained under Germans. The fortune of the day the auspices of Ibrahim, it was not changed like the shifting of a scene: to be expected that Jaghalab-Zadah scattered without order through the would much enjoy his promotion." vast encampment, and entangled by During the whole of the night which the cordage of the pavilions and the followed the battle of Keresztes, the wrecks of equipages, the Imperialists tabul-khani or imperial kettle-drums offered a ready and helpless harvest to had been sounded without intermission the scimitars of the spahis; and the to recall to the camp the timariots and return of the Tartars, whom their other troops who had fled from the kalgha,* Fateh-Kherai, had succeeded field in the early part of the engagein rallying, completed the work of de- ment: and the grand-vizir Ibrahim struction. Twenty thousand were left had caused proclamation to be made, on the field, and those who escaped that in consideration of the triumph emulated in the confusion of their which had eventually crowned the flight the Turkish corps routed in the Moslem arms, no enquiry should be morning: and thus, while timariots held on account of their abandonment and lanzknechts, janizaries and pan- of their colours. But this leniency was dours, overspread the country far and highly disapproved of by Cicala, who had wide with the wild disarray of their been trained in the stern school of Osman panic-stricken squadrons, carrying of the iron nerves and Khoja-Sinan. each towards their own frontier the A panic flight, like that which the day tidings of defeat and dismay, Cicala, of Keresztes bad witnessed, (though with his division, remained at nightfall common in the irregular armies of in triumphant possession of the field Asia, and abundantly frequent in the of battle, and of the camps, cannon, subsequent military annals of the and baggage of both armies.

Turks themselves,) had hitherto never The glory of this singular battle, disgraced the strict discipline of an the results of which were so unexpect. Ottoman army, and the new vizir de. edly disastrous to the Imperialists, clared his determination to preserve rested evidently with Cicala; and the military institutions of the empire Mohammed, measuring his gratitude in unimpaired efficiency by the signal by the extent of his previous fears, punishment of all the offenders. Three conferred the grand-vizirat on him days were occupied in the investigathe same evening, though no miscon- tion; the whole army was passed in duct whatever had been imputed to review ; and no fewer than 30,000, the vizir Ibrahim Pasha, who was thus principally Asiatic troops, being prosummarily deprived of his office. The nounced to have fled from their standSultan, indeed, hesitated on the fol. ards, were mulcted of their pay and lowing morning to confirm this precis allowances, and stigmatized with the pitate appointment; but the remon- name of firaris, or runaways. Many strances of Saad-ed-deen, who was of those who were present were forthattached to the interests of Cicala, at with decapitated in front of the army, length prevailed, and a capi.aga was and among these Naima particularly sent to demand the seals from Ibrahim, notices Yunus Aga, the commandant and carry them to the new prime of an oda of janizaries, in whose tent minister.

the Sultan had sought shelter in the Cicala had now attained the summit confusion which followed the battle ; of his ambition, and the highest civil thus, according to Oriental notions,condignity in the empire below the sove tracting the ties of hospitality with the reign; but his sudden elevation in- unfortunate officer: others, who had creased the number of his enemies, not come up after the battle, were put among whom all the partisans of the to the ban, and, presenting themselves unfortunate vizir Ferhad were includ. on the faith of the proclamation of Ibraed: and the imprudent and unpopular him, were led instantly to execution. acts of severity with which he com- Sohrab-Pasha, an aged and meritomenced his administration were not rious officer, who had been governor

* The kalgha-sultan was the senior Tartar prince of the blood, and ranked next to the khan. See note, page 358 of our Sept. No. last year,

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