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the world of winged choristers of the or goaded by a fellow-cow; cread, of its grove singing their varied matins — the note when sick and unable to iuspire and industrious bee whispering to the sham expire with freedom; nūal, of a loud low rock,” &c.
three or four times repeated; thus, ua, Our author then proceeds to explain ua, ua, and Brūchd, expressive of eructhe principles on which Adam bestow
tation in the process of rumination. This ed his nomenclature on the beasts,
language can die but with Nature : in the and which he conceives to have been
term brūchd, we have, perhaps, the priregulated by a natural imitation of the
maryidea of the Arabic, nin ruch, breath,
and symbolically, spirit, &c.” sounds which they respectively uttered. These sounds, our readers must No one can fail to perceive, in their be already aware, were necessarily minutest variations, the perfect pronothing less than the Celtic termino. priety of the terms in question, and logy which is still in use. Adopting not only to recognise, without a dic.
not only to reco what Montgomery says of the art of tionary, the true mcaning of gnosd, nest-making among birds, we may nual, and brūchd, but to feel assured thus affirm with Mr M‘Lean, that
that these are the very words that All the blessed habitants of Paradise,
Adam must have applied to their re. Whose words once mingled with the voice
spective ideas, and the only ones which
his descendants should still employ. of angels, Spoke Gaelic just as curiously and well
It would be tedious to follow our As the street-porters in our evil day,
author through all the appellations of After the labours of six thousand years,
the other animals; but his observa. In which their ancestors have failed to add,
tions on the lion deserve to be singled To alter, or diminish any thing.
out from the rest. There was, it o Of the order," says Mr M‘Lean,
seems, a period when the appropriate “ in which the Great Shepherd brought
imitation of the lion's voice, and conthe animals to Adam, we are not in
sequently his original name, was the formed; nor is it essential. Let us
sound liho ; and from this tradition suppose the first to have been the do
the term commonly in use has doubts mestic cow: the name of this animal
less been derived. But this is much in Celtic is bua, buo, or bo; an echo
too musical a sound to be equally apor imitation of its common note." propriate at the present day.
We feel assured that Mr M‘Lean “ The lion, since the fall, at least, tunes must here be right, and that Adam must its voice to a far different key from Ho, have addressed the word bo to the cow. when making the awful spring upon its There has been a Saxon practice of say. prey. The term roar is by no means a ing bo to an animal of a very different true echo to it; no term can express it but description : and sometimes we have the Celtic beuc. ' Bhéuc an leomhan,' ourselves felt disposed to do so. But says Amos. The note of ocean when we shall always hereafter think of Mr
scourged to madness is not a bad imitaM.Lean on such occasions, and refrain
tion of it, and hence we say " An cuan from so misapplying the exclamation,
agus na tonnan a' béucadh; ' i. e. the however strong the temptation may
ocean and its billows roaring. It was well
for Adam the lion did not play upon this appear.
second key first, when showing what to be Having established the exclusive
called. claims of the cow to the ejaculation
If it had, the good Patriarch's
aculation labour, probably, had had an end, at least in question, Mr M'Lean thus pro
for a time. Paradise would have fled ceeds:
affrighted, aud the more timid animals “Let this suffice upon this note. But would have yielded up their new-obtained Nature rests not here. The cow, besides life for very horror.' this confidential voice, has a variety of other tones by which it can communicate
There are noble descriptions of the even to man its sensations of want, plea
lion's wrath, both in classical and in sure, fear, pain, &c. These as well as the modern poetry : but we see here, at a note buo, or bo, form part of the Celtic
part of the Celtic glance, how imperfect they must all be. vocabulary, and, like bo. are just echo Greek, Latin, German, English, all terms. For example, anosd, a term ex- break down under the attempt to givean pressive of its suppliant voice ; geüm, of idea of the lion's roar. No term, it is its low; langan, of a straggling sort of clear, can express it but the Celtic beuc! lowing, not unlike the braying of an ass; What a pity that Snug the joiner, who rčic, ofa desperate roar when being pushed was slow of study, had not possessed these views of Mr M.Lean's! If he had a different scene was now awaiting him. sought to give a bona fide representa. The creation of a help meet for him, tion of an existing lion, beuc was at turned his thoughts to his own nature band to frighten his audience out of and race, and a wider range of phra. their wits; if he feared this result, and seology was the result. This subject wished to aggravate his voice, without is thus beautifully developed by Mr quitting his character, he had only toM Lean:fall back on the softness of supra-lap- “ 'Tis morn! The lark is up mid-sky sarian innocence, and delight the ladies to sing up the king of day! The bee with a melodious Ilho.
whispers it to the unfolding rose, and From sounds, which are an echo of zephyrs run to and fro, the grateful mesthe sense, Mr M.Lean passes to words sengers of Aurora, loaded with fragrance ; and letters of a hieroglyphical and ca. the towering mountains now reflecting the balistical character. This is perhaps horizontal sunbeam, make every dew-drop as obscure as any other portion of the a sparkling diamond. Adam awakes, and book: but its importance may be esti- awakes Eve! and now, and from this hour, mated by the following passage :
may we begin to date the elements of lan
guage more abstractly considered. We " Yes, a compound figure of a dog and shall, therefore, endeavour to show that a lion, in the Cabari make C, L; giving herein our principle will still hold good these their syllabic power we read Cou. that language is still in its elementary El: with a human head introduced, C, L, principles the gradual offspring of Nature, S, Coueles : with, instead of a human being based upon sounds produced by figure, a terrier or a cross, C, L, T, Celt! bodies in motion or collision, and in artiof this there is a Druidical column in culation, forming roots, spontaneously geLargo, in Fifesbire, the property of Gene nerated by action and passion. The greatral Durham, highly illustrative. The lion, est difficulty with which we have now to the serpent, the bull, the barker-in short, contend, is to distinguish between the Ca. the most of the constellations, as on the balistic and the Natural language. Farnese globe-are displayed in bold re- “ Sròn, the nose. Here is a sound lief upon that most curious relic of anti, from bodies in collision : no reflection or quity. The writer was not a little struck echo can be truer than sron of the vibra-when, in visiting this stone and other tory sound produced in blowing it, espeantiquities of Fifeshire, in the autumn of cially with the hand, which must of necege last year, in company with the scientific sity, have been the primitive mode, and Mr Kyle of Glasgow, and the naturalist, still is among the unsophisticated." Mr John Wood of Colipsburgh-to find how very forcibly these hieroglyphics re
Transition is one of the greatest verberated a tale of the days of old-of charms of good composition. In the the deeds of other years.' Thus, in look- tragedy of Macbeth, the calmness of ing up to one of the half-decayed arched the scene before the castle of InverArchives of St Andrew's, you observe a ness, succceding to the turbulent star, a dog, and a lion. A star, in Celtic, anxieties of guilty ambition, has been is Ré, a dog, Aug, and the lion, or eagle, often and justly admired; and we have El ; which produce the name of the found here an example of the same artifice, er. Regulus! Kil, Re, Eph. Ain, its Cel. though with a different tendency. tic name, is equivalent. We have never From the beauty of a morning in seen the Rosetta stone in London, but we Paradise, and the ecstacies of newly. see it in the name R, S, T, Ro-Esh-Tau- inspired love, the author gracefully a circle, a man, and a cross, or a dog- sinks at once (quam familiariter !) to with probably their attributes, severally, the vibratory sound « srön, the nose,” if not their history ? This accounts for
for and our imaginations are elegantly led the name of Fife, (Ff,) and of that of the
to a consideration of details in the un. beautiful hill Largo, as also that of the
sophisticated life of our first parents, tattooed worshippers, Bretanich, Albanich,
nich, of which Milton has unaccountably Horestii, Pehs, &c.”
omitted to take the slightest notice. The same idea, perhaps, may also The following may be offered as a account for the milk in the cocoa nut, fair, or perhaps a favourable sample of and for any other phenomenon of our author's etymological acumen :which no satisfactory explanation has « Lib or Lăb, the heart; either an as yet been given.
imitation or rehearsal of its beat; or, if Hitherto we have been examining the reader prefer it, oracularly, El-Ab, as names imposed by our great ancestor being a heavenly monitor. We may easily on the lower orders of creation ; but imagine that the firs: pair were struck sufficiently early with the pulsation of the of even the most celebrated modern heart; and wonderful indeed it must be to philologers of the day. What are the every person of reflection ; counting the labours of a Bopp, a Grimm, or a passing moment as it does from the mo- Graff, compared with those of a Macment of our birth till the last throe of Lean? What pretensions has the death breaks the golden cord, at the rate Gothic to be studied, which can only of about one hundred thousand times a establish by mere historical documents day! Methuselah's pulse must have told a literary existence of about 1400 upwards of 42,442,200,000 during his
years, when the Gaelic can be drawn lifetime! Here, then, we have the root
back, by internal evidence, to a period of libiden, a man of little or no heart,
antecedent to the creation of woman, judging from actions ; duine libideach,' a trifling, heartless mañ. We are corro.
nay, antecedent even to the creation borated here,, at least, by Parkhurst, upon
of man himself; since it is plain by the root 23 lb, the heart,' says he,
Mr M Lean's demonstrations, that be* from its vibratory motion, pulsation, or fore Adam existed, the lower animals beating.' We naturally attribute to this spoke Celtic in the sounds which they beating and sensitive monitor, thoughts, severally uttered, and which afterwards will, love, hatred, joy, grief, &c. We are proved the type of the names conferred apt to view it, in fact, as the light, the in- upon them ? Investigations of this former of the whole universe of man: kind are fitted to elevate their author hence we say, by figure, lib, or libh, bright, far beyond the reputation of a plodding shining, white, clear :
grammarian; and Mr M'Lean may I libh mar Eal'air a chuan.'
boldly lay claim to a niche in that i. e. Fair as a swan upon the wave was sle. transcendental gallery, of which the Claidheamh libhara do shenar.'
one extremity is already occupied by i. e. The shining blade of thy fathers,
Wolfgang Menzel, and the other by
Maximus Macnab. Again, libher, a book, because it informs:
To return to the proposition with library, a collection of books: liberal,
which we set out: we repeat that the large-hearted ; and b and v being convertible letters, liv-ain, or leven a clear river;
publication of the present work is cal. synonymous with Libanus or Lebanon.
culated more and more to impress us The Saxon leof, the English love, and life,
with the importance of an increased are but a variety. The radix, in process attention to the Celtic languages. of time, assumed a prefix or formative for There are two ways in which this ease to our organs in conversation; hence object may be promoted. One of them, cliabh, the chest, breast, as being the and the more sublime of the two, is house of the heart; by figure, a hamper, that pursued by Mr M‘Lean, which a creel, or any wicker-work, from a re- seeks to inculcate, from lofty generalisemblance to the chest, having ribs : cliath, ties and enthusiastic imaginations, the a harrow; cliathach, the side, or cross primeval antiquity and mystical signi. timbers of a house or ship. And, follow ficance of those languages. The other ing out the analogy, cliathranich, to be at lies along a humbler path, in which cross purposes, a tight.”
their elementary principles and strucWe have now, we hope, afforded tural analogies are to be collected by sufficient specimens of Mr M.Lean's a patient and dispassionate induction History, to excite, without satiating, from indisputable realities. If the at. the curiosity of our readers, to whom, tempt of Mr M Lean succeeds, it is after what we have already said, it is good and well; if it fails, we recomneedless for us to recommend the pur- mend to our Celtic philologists to try chase and perusal of the book itself. what they can make of the more sober
When we contemplate tbe principles system which has been already folthat are here developed, we look with lowed, with no small success, by their pity and contempt on the occupations Teutonic brethren.
ART AND ITS VEHICLES.
The Art Union, a monthly journal gaging others to help us in the study, very ably conducted, and promising to enable the greater genius, with more be of great utility, having, in the last facility and more effect, permanently number, (for April,) noticed some re- to embody the high conceptions of his marks and expressions made use of by mind. We do not say that we shall us in a review of Taylor's translation do so; but we shall not be deterred of Merimée, and having, we think, from making the trial, because it may somewhat misunderstood the view be implied that we feel too confident, taken by us, we think it as well shortly and that we have no higher aim of art. to revert to the subject, because we Confidence in self, to a certain degree, consider it one of great importance to is the mark of enthusiasm : it is that art, and we are particularly desirous hope enlarged which blends itself with that public attention should be directed experiments till it makes them more to it. If we mistake not the meaning complete: it is that which gives paof the writer in the Art Union, he tience to endure the toil, the research, would rather deprecate such discus. and labour; and, after all, as it stands sions, and the continual search after visibly for no more than it is worth, new vehicles. At least he appears to may be pardoned for the efforts to give no encouragement to experiment which it leads. We have ourselves and enquiry. “The diversity of opin- felt this encourager, or child of enthuions expressed by writers,'' he says, siasm ; and, when the chill of doubt “ who, it is assumed, feel competent to has cooled us down, and we have drawn instruct us, is strong evidence that con. the pen across our confident expres. jecture occupies the place of certainty." sions, we know not that we have done Now, we do not quarrel with any be. wisely-certainly not where accurate cause they feel competent to instruct, detail, and the whole process of inferprovided they will furnish us with the ences and reasoning have accompanied means of judging for ourselves; that the ardent expression. In our moment is, if they will clearly detail to us their of enthusiasm, now, we say confidently experiments, their progress, and pro that we will yield to none of woman. cesses, as well as their results; and born in our love-devoted love to art; their reasons for what is more conjec. and we will do our best to teach all we tural. A very bad artist may be a very know to those who know less, and love inquisitive man, and spend time and it as we do, and will most gladly re. labour upon the material of the art, ceive information from any who know that the man of more active genius more than we do, on any point or cannot afford to do. And, while artists points of the arts. must be under the necessity of relying T he writer we have alluded to upon the improvements and inventions says,of colour-makers, canvass-makers, pa
" That the subject of vehicles for paintper-makers, and workers in other
ing continues to furnish matter for discustrades, we see no reason why they should turn the eye of scorn upon the
sion amongst us, is to be seriously regret
ted. We cannot plead as an excuse that efforts, either of an humble brother
it is with us an art of yesterday : for we artist or amateur. Perhaps it is be.
surely have had time to come to some cause they are humbler that their use
conclusion as to the propriety of using this fulness in this way may be greater.
or that vehicle. That we have not arrived “ Did you never hear yet
at any certain and desirable results is clear, A fool may teach a wise man wit?" from the variety of modes practised by our
artists. One, and not the least of the many was the reply of the poor shepherd
evils attending this state of things, is the to the archbishop. For ourselves, we
prejudicial influence it has on the student; are not above learning from a child
who, hearing daily allusions to it, it acwhat a child may teach; and think
quires with him undue importance. Who it possible, that, while others are has not heard a thousand times, in exhibioccupied in daring flights of design, tion-rooms or galleries, in the front of even our humble selves may, by in- works demanding admiration :- What tensely studying the materials, and en does he paint with?' What is it painted
with ?'- thus attributing to a mere acces ture, and have regretted it; for it was sory of the palette, that which is the com not wanted. We perfectly remember bined result of the vivid preconception of the the mode in which we painted the work, and the facile power of hand' dis
picture-copy of a large Gaspar Pous. played in the execution."
sin--with strong drying oil and turAfter the admission in the first pentine ; and what we painted one sentence of our quotation, we are sur
day we sanded the next day, or the prised that so sensible a writer should day after that. By sanding, we mean lay any stress on so imaginary an
that we rubbed common red coarse evil. Does he really think the enquiry sand, with water, entirely over the will paralyse the hand or the mind of surface, which took off all the greasigenius, or be in any way injurious to ness, and gave a most pleasant sur. the young student ? And as to “undue face; and this we did repeatedly, till importance," we think that of very the foul part of the oil, wbich comes great importance which is to enable to the surface, came no more. Then, the young student to have the most so far as it was done, the picture lookready means of embodying his ideas,
ed well for that medium ; but, in folly, and materials that will render them we glazed it over freely with this nutpermanent. But, in addition to this oil balsam-which, after all, effected, consideration of the young student,
even for the time, no more than the however willing we might be to save other process would have done. But bim this trouble and distraction of what said Time ? « This is no work thought-and we really wish there of mine," quoth he, and scrawled his was a “ royal road to mathematics". scratchy marks of disapprobation over there is another party, the public it. And, yet, be liked it at first ; for the patrons—the purchasers of pic he kept it pretty well for ten years, for tures, who, we are quite sure, will be the sake of the under coating and very much obliged to any one who work, perhaps. But at the end of will secure them in their possessions. that time he began indignantly to tear Now, though we do not profess to away the balsam, turning it into mud. open an “insurance office' for such We were actually allowed a respite of perilous adventures, we are glad to ten years for our work, without any see a few schemes and prospectuses thing that could be called separation of afloat; for, “in the multitude of paint; and now it is cracked all over. counsellors, there is wisdom."
We bad written so far when we were We were once ourselves on most called away; and, singularly enough, intimate terms with no less a person have seen two pictures, a description age in art than an R.A. Few days, of the quality of which may well simduring many years, passed that we plify much that we would say upon did not meet. We were constantly this subject. The one, we saw painted beside his easel, and as constantly re upwards of twenty years ago.
We monstrated with him upon his use of saw it fresh on the easel of the very Macgyllup. Still he persevered. His R.A. of whom we made mention pictures looked vastly well. He had above. It was an elaborately painted great reputation ; and, save in this picture of familiar life, with great respect, deservedly; but we, humble finish and richness of colour. We saw as we were, dared to doubt-even to it during its progress-and, at the very remonstrate—with the great R.A. We time, we remonstrated with the artist felt“ that we were competent to in. for the use of mastic varnish with his struct;" and he felt that we were not. medium: we saw it finished as it stood Well, it may be said—and there was on his easel, and we have not seen it no harm in that. Yes, but there was since until now; and, after that lapse a great deal of harm in that: for, of time, where do we see it? In the we regret to say, now that he is dead hands of a cleaner-a repairer of pic. and gone, his works are following tures ; and we believe, from certain him. First, they lost their brilliancy- marks, that this is not the first time then they assumed a positively disa. that it has required similar assistance. greeable texture, and then cracked - It has kept its colour, and even texture, and some of them went, most wofully, better than any picture of his we have all to pieces. We recollect, too, being seen ; but still it is cracked, and is still ourselves persuaded to try one of these cracking, and some parts that were balsamic mixtures in copying a pic- brilliant are become leathery, others