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other nations in the good taste which creative faculty of the imagi governs the arrangement of their sen There are many other res tences ; in the simplicity (a strange belonging to this subtlest preteosion to make for any thing jects, affecting both the log French) of the modulation under the ornaments of style, which their thoughts flow; in the ab. would fall under the head of sence of all cumbrous involution, and ology. But for instant practi in the quick succession of their pe- though far less difficult for riods. În reality this invaluable merit gation, yet, for that reason, fa tends to an excess; and the style coupé tangible and appreciab woul as opposed to the style soutenu, flip. the suggestions proper to the oth pancy opposed to gravity, the sub- of mechanology. Half-a-dozen sultory to the continuous, these are evading the most frequently re the too frequent extremities to which forms of awkwardness, of obscu the French manner betrays men. misproportion, and of double m Better, however, to be flippant, than, would do more to assist a w by a revolting form of tumour and per- practice, laid under some nece plexity, to lead men into habits of in- hurry, than volumes of gene tellect such as result from the modern quisition. It makes us blush vice of English style. Still, with all that even grammar is so litt its practical value, it is evident that perfect attainment amongst v the intellectual merits of the French with two or three exception style are but small. They are chiefly being Shakspeare, whom som negative, in the first place; and, to consider as belonging to secondly, founded in the accident of barbarous age,) we have nev their colloquial necessities. The law the writer, through a circuit o of conversation has prescribed the gious reading, who has not sor model of their sentences : and in that violated the accidence or the law there is quite as much of self-inter- of English grammar. est at work as of respect for equity.

Whatever becomes of our o Hanc veniam petimusque damusque sible speculations, we shall c vicissim. Give and take is the rule, with insisting on the growing and he who expects to be heard must sity of style as a practical int condescend to listen ; which necessity, daily life. Upon subjects of for both parties, binds over both to be concern, and in proportion brief. Brevity so won could at any concern, there will always be rate have little merit; and it is certain able (and as letters extend, a g that, for profound thinking, it must competition. Other things sometimes be a hinderance. In order to equal, or appearing to be eq be brief, a man must take a shortsweep determining principle for the of view: his range of thought cannot choice will lie in the style. be extensive ; and such a rule, applied German book, otherwise ent to a general method of thinking, is respect, it was said—er lässt si fitted rather to aphorisms and maxims lesen, it does not permit itsel as upon a known subject, than to any read : such and so repulsive process of investigation as upon à style. Among ourselves, this } subject yet to be fathomed. Advancing been true of newspapers : t still further into the examination of not suffer themselves to be style as the organ of thinking, we extenso, and they are read shor should find occasion to see the prodi-' what injury to the mind gious defects of the French in all the guessed. The same style of higher qualities of prose composition. once largely practised, is app! One advantage, for a practical purpose versally. To this special evil of life, is sadly counterbalanced by provement of style would appl numerous faults, many of which are cial redress. The same impre faults of stamina, lying not in any cor is otherwise clamorously called rigible defects, but in such as imply each man's interest of comp penury of thinking, from radical inapti. Public luxury, which is gradua tude in the thinking faculty to connect sulted by every thing else, itself with the feeling, and with the length be consulted in style.

com- the effects upon style even of that one
; the slight addition to the resources of logic.
ress. Previously, a man was driven to depend
arise for his security against misunderstand.
- the ing upon the pure virtue of his syn-
from tax. "Miscollocation or dislocation of
s an related words disturbed the whole
aing. sense : its least effect was, to give no
being sense ; often it gavea dangerous sense.

pro. Now, punctuation was an artificial
wer machinery for maintaining the inter

that grity of the sense against all mistakes tion, of the writer; and, as one consequence, and it withdrew the energy of men's anxieThe ties from the natural machinery, m of which lay in just and careful arrange. But ment. Another and still greater mama- chinery of art for the purpose of main. wed taining the sense, and with the effect bing, of relaxing the care of the writer, lay

and in the exquisitely artificial structure of ords the Latin language, which, by means lan- of its terminal forms, indicated the and arrangement, and referred the proper me. predicate to the proper subject, spite is in of all that affectation or negligence cach could do to disturb the series of the 3 an logic or the succession of the syntax. ution Greek, of course, had the same advan. t be tage in kind, but not in degree; and The thence rose some differences which

have escaped all notice of rhetoricians. ords, Here also would properly arise the mar, question started by Charles Fox, (but

of probably due originally to the con. e by versation of some far subtler friend, 3 of such as Edmund Burke,) how far

it is the practice of foot-notes--a practice pund purely modern in its formis reconhich cilable with the laws of just composiwith tion: and whether in virtue, though iefly not in form, such foot-notes did not with exist for the ancients, by an evasion psist we could point out. The question is ction clearly one which grows out of style

can in its relations io ihought-how far, no is viz., such an excrescence as a note

ma.

argues that the sentence to which it y be is attached has not received the benetbis fit of a full developement for the cont we ception involved; whether, if thrown cions into the furnace again and re-melted, part, it might not be so rc.cast as to absorb

us the redundancy which had previously reek flowed over into a note. Under this over head would fall not only all the differsave ential questions of style and composithe tion between us and the ancients, but our also the questions of merit as fairly anc- distributed amongst the moderns comtion pared with each other. The French, po. as we recently insisted, undoubtedly race possess one vast advantage over all

NO, CCXCVII. VOL. XLVIII,

B

CICALA-PASHA-A CHAPTER OF TURKISH HISTORY.

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At the death of Soliman the Magni. vast dominions won by the sabres of
ficent in 1566, the Ottoman empire, his ancestors, were consolidated by
then at its zenith of triumph and Soliman, whose legislative enactments
grandeur, presented a system of mili- and municipal institutionst continued,
tary and political organization supe. till the late innovations, to be recog.
rior to any which the world had wit- nised and acted upon as the standard
nessed since the decay of Roman of the political and social relations of
power. A regularly paid and highly the Turks, who commemorate their
disciplined standing army, with a author (known only as a conqueror to
numerous and effective artillery, and the nations of the West) by the vene-
aided at the same time by an inex. rable title of Soliman the Lawgiver.
haustible supply of timariots, or local But with the succession of the ener-
troops holding land by the tenure of vated Selim II., the vigour and energy
military service, combined, in a great of the imperial line expired ; and,
measure, the advantageous points of though the impulse previously com-
the feudal and modern systems, be- municated preserved the empire for
tween which the rest of Europe was some years from manifesting any ex-
then in a state of transition; and en ternal tokens of disorganization, the
abled the Sultan to advance with con. forty years which followed the death
fident superiority to the encounter of of Soliman, are evidently a period of
the raw levies, or tumultuous bands of suspense between the progressive ad-
mercenaries, which then constituted vance in territory and strength which
the bulk of the German armies ; bad been previously maintained, and
while an assured and ample revenue, the gradually accelerated descent
such as no other European prince of which marks the history of the seven-
that age enjoyed, gave him the power ' teenth and eighteenth centuries.
of exhausting his opponent by the in But, independent of the personal
definite prolongation of the war, if im- superintendence and activity of the
mediate success proved unattainable. first ten sultans, the continual success,
The personal qualifications of the which had raised the monarchy to
princes of the dynasty of Othman, had such a point of prosperity, was but in
been, moreover, remarkably adapted small proportion due to the heads or
for attaining and securing this emi. hands of native Turks. The janiza-
nence of power: from the foundation ries, whose scimitars were directed to
of the monarchy in 1299 to the ac the subversion of the faith in which
cession of Selim II., the sceptre of the themselves had been born, were, till
Osmanlis had been swayed, in an un- long after the institution of the corps,
broken series from father to son, by recruited exclusively from youthful
ten sultans, all (with the single excep Christian captives trained up in the
tion of Bayezid II.) distinguished by Moslem faith ; while those in whom
military capacity and personal energy indications of superior talent were ap-
in a degree of which the annals of no parent, were educated in the palace of
other sovereign house furnish so many the Sultan, and destined, on attaining
successive examples ; while the extra manhood, to fill the high offices of the
ordinary average duration * of their state and army: and so rigidly was
reigns prevented the frequent changes this rule originally observed, that the
of policy incident to a rapid succession, fact of Pyrrhus or Piri-Pasha, the first
and enabled each ruler to carry out vizir under Soliman, being a Turk by
to their accomplishment the schemes birth, is remarked by historians as ex-
of conquest and aggrandizement which traordinary. But as the fame of the
had been planned by himself. The splendour and munificence of the Os.

* The first ten reigns of the Ottoman line, from Othman to Soliman, gave an ave. rage length of 263 years; or, as nearly as possible, twice the average duration of the twenty succeeding, from Selim II. to Mahmood II, inclusive.

† The very existence of municipalities in the Ottoman empire was unknown to European statesmen a few years since, and their true nature and importance are still far from being adequately understood. Those of Greece, under the Turkish rule, are described and ably commented upon by Mr Parish, at the commencement of his “ Diplomatic History of the Monarchy of Greece,"

PTER OP TURKISH HISTORY.

e.

as

in vast dominions won by the sabres of e, his ancestors, were consolidated by d Soliman, whose legislative enactments lic and municipal institutions † continued, e till the late innovations, to be recog, Et- nised and acted upon as the standard an of the political and social relations of ly the Turks, who commemorate their

à author (known only as a conqueror to
ad the nations of the West) by the vene-
X. rable title of Soliman the Lawgiver.
al But with the succession of the ener.
of vated Selim II., the vigour and energy
at of the imperial line expired ; and,
of though the impulse previously com-

municated preserved the empire for
some years from manifesting any ex.

ternal tokens of disorganization, the
n. forty years which followed the death
of of Soliman, are evidently a period of
of suspense between the progressive ad-
ed vance in territory and strength which
S; bad been previously maintained, and
je, the gradually accelerated descent

of which marks the history of the seven-
wer teenth and eighteenth centuries.
in.

But, independent of the personal
m. superintendence and activity of the
le. first ten sultans, the continual success,
the which had raised the monarchy to
nad such a point of prosperity, was but in
ted small proportion due to the heads or
mie hands of native Turks. The janiza-
con ries, whose scimitars were directed to

the subversion of the faith in which the themselves had been born, were, till unlong after the institution of the corps,

ac

manli emperors became more widely ration valuable in the sudden extended, renegades of a more mature and hazardous enterprises wl age were not wanting, who were at- racterize the Mediterranean tracted from all parts of Europe, to of that period; and his assista range themselves under the banner accordingly secured by the I which flew victorious from the Danube lers, (then, 1531, just landed to the Tigris and the Nile, and to desert island-home of Malta, barter their religion and their country armament by which they hope for the dazzling rewards which were sess themselves of the import at the disposal of the Commander of of Modon in the Morea. Tw the faithful. of the ten grand renegades betrayed the mole vizirs who supported by their prowess fortifications of the harbou and wisdom the throne of Soliman, no party detached to the attack; less than eight were of this class : enterprise, after the assaila and of the naval commanders of the gained possession of the stre same epoch, the famous Piali was a defeated by the insubordinatic Hungarian, Kilidj-Ali (Occhiali), a Italian soldiers, who disperse Calabrian, and Salih an Ionian Greek; selves in search of plunder ir and the comparatively mature age at assaulting the citadel which co which he became a Moslem, (though ed the lower town, till the ad he afterwards underwent a regular the Pasha of the Morea rer course of discipline and instruction,) speedy retreat inevitable; w justifies our ranking with these valiant knights and gentlemen who h renegades the famous Sinan-Pasha the squadron, perceiving all Jaghalah-Zadah, who, under the suc permanent occupation at an er cessors of Soliman, supported the ban- ed their chivalry by sharing in ner of the Crescent in almost every suit of spoil : every house quarter of their realms; and who, sacked of its most valuable effe meriting by his ferocity, as well as his eight hundred Turkish ladies, t courage, the epithet often conferred their homes for slavery or on him of Arslan or Lion, was beyond formed a somewhat incongr dispute one of the most energetic and dition to the booty carried o undaunted, though not the most fortu. order in whose statutes celib nate, of the generals who upheld for a most rigidly enjoined ! One time the renown of the empire, when fair prizes, a Turkish girl of su the glories of Soliman and his lieu. beauty, who fell to the lot of tenants had passed away.

won upon the fierce heart of t The father of this famous rene. that, on his arrival at Mes: gade was the Viscount de Cicala or offered to enfranchise and ma Cigala, a Genoese of noble family on condition of her abjuring settled in Sicily,* who followed the She was accordingly baptize profession of a privateer or mari. name of Lucrezia, and bec time partisan against the Moham- wife of Cicala; and from this medans ; cruising with three or ly assorted union sprung S four galleys, sometimes on his own Cicala, who was destined, account, but more frequently asso- changes of his subsequent c ciating himself with the Venetians exact heavy retribution from t or the Knights of St John, in the tians for the desolation intl marauding expeditions with which them on the homes of his mate they continually devastated the hos cestors. tile coasts, and which, it should al. Such is the story of his ways be borne in mind, first gave lated by Vertot. rise, on the principle of retaliation, youngest of several brothers, to the system of Barbary piracy, on eighteen years of age* wher the horrors of which so much has with his father, into the pow been said and written. The naval skill Turks, at the disastrous defe and daring of Cicala made his co-ope Christian armament by the

by recruited exclusively from youthful ep- Christian captives trained up in the

by Moslem faith ; while those in whom gy

indications of superior talent were ap no parent, were educated in the palace of any the Sultan, and destined, on attaining cra- manhood, to fill the high offices of the heir state and army: and so rigidly was ges this rule originally observed, that the on, fact of Pyrrhus or Piri-Pasha, the first out vizir under Soliman, being a Turk by mes birth, is remarked by historians as ex. ich traordinary. But as the fame of the Che splendour and munificence of the Os.

Scipio

The Prince de Castel Cicala, Neapolitan ambassador extraordinary to descends, we believe, from the same house.

† Von Hammer.–Picart says he was only twelve years old at this time ; mosissimo Capitan Viscoude Cigala, con su hijo menor Don Scipion de eda anos,"

on line, from Othman to Soliman, gave an ave• y as possible, twice the average duration of the Jahmood II. inclusive, lities in the Ottoman empire was unknown to and their true nature and importance are still

Those of Greece, under the Turkish rule, are by Mr Parish, at the commencement of his of Greece,"

Pasha Piali, (May 14, 1560,) at the reigns; and Cicala, after serving unisle of Djerbeh, or Galves, on the der the imperial standard in the last African coast. The father and son Hungarian campaign of Soliman, figured in the naval triumph in which (who died at the siege of Szigeth in the victorious admiral entered the 1566,) and seeing towns and castles harbour of Constantinople : the cap. surrender when summoned in the tured vessels, dismantled of their name of a monarch who was no longer masts and rudders, were towed in pro- among the living, had, in 1572, only cession to the arsenal; while, from attained to the command of his original the stern of Piali's admiral-galley, corps as Capidji-Bashi,t in which capa. the inverted standard of the Cross city he was deputed, two years later, was trailed in the waves of the Bos. to install the Waiwode Peter in the phorus, and the principal captives, principality of Moldavia, and, at the after being exhibited in chains on same time to nail as a warning, at the forecastle to the gaze of the the gate of the new prince's palace populace, were paraded through the at Yassi, the head of his predeces. streets to the presence of Soliman. sor Iwan, who had perished in an The notoriety of the elder Cicala as attempt to assert independence by a corsair, excluded him from all hope the help of the Poles and Cossacks. of being admitted to ransom ; and as But, on the accession of Mourad III., he refused to change his religion, he the grandson of Soliman, the services was thrown, with the other captives, of Cicala, still supported by the patrointo prison, where he died after four nage of Khoja- Sinan, who recognised years' confinement, as some accounts in his fierce and unyielding character improbably state, through poison ad. a kindred spirit to his own, procured ministered by the Sultan's order; but him more rapid advancement; and a the youthful figure of his son attracted tumult of the janizaries, who, in the the compassion of Soliman, and he was fury of intoxication, had insulted the enrolled among the ich-oghlauns, or Sultan himself, and torn down with pages of the interior court, who were contumely the edicts prohibiting wine, destined, on the completion of their having caused the disgrace of their aga, education, to be transferred to the civil he was appointed (1576) to the vacant and military employments of the state. command, as the officer best qualified Embracing with the reckless avidity of to control the increasing excesses of youth the faith which opened to him this turbulent soldiery. In this im. the paths of honour and advance. portant post, (the highest military rank ment, Scipio Cicala became a Mos. which did not convey the government lem, under the auspices of the noted of a province,) he became a distinKhoja. Sinan Pasha, who, as his sagh guished favourite of the Sultan, who, ded; or sponsor, bestowed his own in the following year, honoured him name on the neophyte ;* and so high with the hand of a bride of impewas the reputation which he acquired rial descent, the daughter of Ahmedfor talent and zeal, that, on quitting the Pasha by a grand-daughter of the chamber of instruction for an appoint. great Solinan. The nuptials were ment in the corps of capidjis, (guards celebrated with a degree of splendour of the gate,) his pay and allowances extraordinary even in those days of were fixed at a rate one-fourth higher Osmanli magnificence. The trous. than that usually assigned. The gra. seau of the bride, whose expenses were dations of rank and progressive steps defrayed by her grandmother, the Sula of promotion were at this time regu, tana Mihrmah, daughter of Soliman, lated with a rigid exactness, which and widow of his grand-vizir Roostem, was soon relaxed under the succeeding amounted to 100,000 ducats, exclusive

* Turkish writers hence often speak of him as the adopted son of Khoja- Sinan; distinguishing him by the appellation of Jaghalah Zadah or Jaghal Oghlu “ Son of Cicala." Christian cotemporary authors usually call bim Cicala Bassa.

† Picart says that he had at one time during this period held the command of two galleys in the Mediterranean; and his subsequent appointment to the capitan-pashalik makes this not improbable.

I This title is confined to the sisters and daughters of the Sultan, and not given, as is commonly imagined, to the oudalisques (oudaliskir,) or ladies of the imperial hareni,

ro

FOS

on

an.

as

as

the reigns; and Cicala, after serving unthe der the imperial standard in the last son Hungarian campaign of Soliman, ich (who died at the siege of Szigeth in the 1566,) and seeing towns and castles cap. surrender when summoned in the heir name of a monarch who was no longer

among the living, had, in 1572, only com attained to the command of his original ey, corps as Capidji- Basbi,t in which capa. Foss city he was deputed, two years later,

to install the Waiwode Peter in the es, principality of Moldavia, and, at the

same time to nail as a warning, at the the gate of the new prince's palace the at Yassi, the head of his predeces.

sor Iwan, who had perished in an

attempt to assert independence by pe the help of the Poles and Cossacks.

But, on the accession of Mourad III., he the grandson of Soliman, the services -es, of Cicala, still supported by the patroour nage of Khoja. Sinan, who recognised unts in his fierce and unyielding character ad. a kindred spirit to his own, procured but him more rapid advancement; and a ted tumult of the janizaries, who, in the vas fury of intoxication, had insulted the

Sultan himself, and torn down with ere contumely the edicts prohibiting wine, heir having caused the disgrace of their aga, ivil he was appointed (1576) to the vacant ate. command, as the officer best qualified y of to control the increasing excesses of aim this turbulent soldiery. In this imce- portant post, (the highest military rank

which did not convey the government ted of a province,) he became a distingh- guished favourite of the Sultan, who,

in the following year, honoured him igh with the band of a bride of impered rial descent, the daughter of Ahmed. the Pasha by a grand-daughter of the Int. great Soliman. The nuptials were -rds celebrated with a degree of splendour ces extraordinary even in those days of her Osmanli magnificence. The trous

seau of the bride, whose expenses were eps defrayed by her grandmother, the Sulich and widow of his grand-vizir Roosten,

Or

1

OS

wn

ra

zu tana Mihrmah,& daughter of Soliman,

of jewels, while the bon-bons distri- broidered figures of men and buted to the populace during the re which appeared on them; and joicings cost no less than twice that by the Soonis (who consider th sum. Siawush-Pasha, who, as neshan- sentation of all living things for li-saghdedj, or bridegroom's man, es. were regarded as a sheah, a corted the bride to her husband's tion. The public presentation bouse, expended in gifts the sum of mah to the Sultan, nine days 60,000 sequins; and even the orna entry, was signalized by an en mented palm branches which were fusion of magnificence; but, be borne in the nuptial procession were Persian ambassador had quittvalued at a thousand pieces of gold. stantinople, the monarch fro The princess, on whose nuptials all he was accredited had expired this pomp was lavished, survived them son, administered to him by on only a few years; but Cicala is said, wives ; and, amid the troubles after her death, to have married her sensions which ensued, the Por younger sister, a union forbidden by found pretexts for attacking the strict interpretation of the Koran, afresh. War was accordin (though some commentators expound clared the following year; and the passage as forbidding only the raskier Mustapha, the hero of marriage with two sisters at once,) priote war, subdued in two ca and, as the appellation of sultan.za. the greater part of Georgia a dah* (descendant of a sultan) is ap wan: but the intrigues of his plied by Turkish writers to both his procured his recall; and, in ] sons, it is probable that he contracted grand-vizirat and the commar no other alliances.

army were conferred at once o Since the peace of 1555, which ter. Sinan, the conqueror of T minated the long wars of Selim and Arabia, and the early patron o Soliman against Persia, the relations Cicala was at this juncturer of that monarchy with the Porte had aga of the janizaries—the lo continued friendly: and the splendid plaint of the Christians of C mission dispatched by Shah Tahmasp nople, of whom he was a big in 1576 to congratulate Mourad on his pressor, had caused his rem accession, was received at Constanti. encouraging the outrages of nople with a degree of distinction diery against their property never before accorded to the ambassa- still retained the personal f dors of any Mohammedan, and far less the Sultan, and repairing wi of any Christian power. The capitan- to the headquarters of the pasha, with thirty galleys, transported Armenia, gained such renow the envoy, Tokmah-Khan, from Scu- bravery and enterprise in the tari to Europe, amid the thunders of irregular warfare which ma artillery from both shores. The beg, ensuing campaign on the ( lerbeg of Roumelia, and Cicala, as aga border, that he was not of the janizaries, received him at the empted from the disgrace wh landing place, and rode on his right took his patron at its conclu and left to the palace prepared for his invested with the rank of pas reception ; while tho rich gifts of tails, and appointed governo which he was the bearer were dis van, the most recent conque played in long procession by his at Turks, which had been forti tendants, and the jewelled caparisons extraordinary care by the of his led horses (an important part Ferhad-Pasha, for the defen of an Oriental pageant) at once dazzled new frontier. The fluctua. the eyes of the Osmanlis by their gor. tunes of the campaign which geous trappings of gems and gold, and afforded him ample opport scandalized their orthodoxy by the cm. distinguishing himself under

ing amounted to 100,000 ducats, exclusive

" Son

uk of him as the adopted son of Khoja- Sinan;

of Jaghalah Zadah or Jaghal Oghlu thors usually call him Cicala Bassa. e during this period held the command of two subsequent appointment to the capitan-pashalik

The mother of the heir-apparent alone bears the title of Sultana-Khassiki ; the accession of her son, Sultana-Walidah.

The male offspring of both the daughters and granddaughters of a reig reign were destroyed in their birth, as too near the throne. It was only in degree of descent that they were allowed to exist, and to these the title of dah was appropriated.

and daughters of the Sultan, and not given, as is 3 (oudaliskir,) or ladies of the imperial harem.

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