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Modern History: CONTINUATION | Universal History:
The HISTORY OF AMERICA.
PENS Y L V A N I A.
great and Aourishing colony, is foreign to this work. Mr. Penn.
It is sufficient to say, that his father was Sir William Perin, the famous admiral who commanded the naval arma-, ment, as colonel Denables did the land forces, which Cromwell sent against Hispaniola, where, though they failed, they conquered Jamaicà. The particulars of that expedition are to this day misterious ; but it is agreed, on all hands, that the attempt upon Hispaniola did not fail through the cowardice of either commander ; and, it is certain, that the exiled family of the Stuarts, after the failure of the expedition, kept up a close correspondence with them both; and that l'enables was very deeply concerned in the unsuccessful insurrection at Chester in their favour. Penn was by principle an independent; but immediately after the restoration, he became a reigning favourite at court with the two royal brothers. In 1665, he was appointed to command the English feet under 1666 the duke of York ; and it was universally thought that the laurels which his royal highness acquired in figheing against the Dutch, were chiefly owing to the great abilities of Sir William Penn as a seaman.
Mod. Hist. Vol. XLI.
In the mean while, Sir William's fon, William, was adding the advantages of a fiberal education to the uncommon sagacity he possessed from nature; but, from being an enemy, next to enthusiasm against the established church of England, he at laft professed himself a quaker. While he was studying at Christ Church, Oxford, he and the lord Spencer, afterwards earl of Sunderland, so noted for the duplicity of his conduct, insulted the students and the clergy who appeared in surplices, and becoming thereby obnoxious, they were by their parents fent into foreign parts to enlarge their minds. Young Penn, when he was abroad, received an order from his father, on his being appointed admiral as aforesaid, to return home; and it is probable, that, by this time, both father and son had digested within themselves the plan of their future settlement, The juncture and disposition of the court was extremely favourable to their wilhes. The royal brothers wanted to send out of England as many sectaries as they could, and thought that the government of them could not be more properly entrusted than with the Penns. The latter, on the other hand, could not without great grief see the harrafsments which those of their own persuasion every day suffered in England ; and they had before their eyes the fourishing examples of New England and Virginia to encourage them in their intention of making like migrations of their own fect and their friends to
America, where there were ftill vast tracts of unappropriated land to settle, Sir William died in the west of England, and was buried in Bristol; but probably less the plan of his settlement, in which it is said he was greatly affifted by a relation residing in America, with his son.
The young gentleman, when his father died, was so much immersed in religious disputes that he had for some time 'no leisure to follicit the grant, which had actually been promised to his father by Charles II. But the persécution
against his fect raging every day more and more, he obtained 1640. it in the year 1679; but was not actually invested with it till 680.37, the 4th of March, 1680-81. The allegations of Mr. Penn's
petition were, a como endable desire to enlarge the English empire, and promote such useful commodities' as may be of beriefit thereto, as also to reduce the savage nations, by gentle and just manners, to the love of civil society, and the
Chriftian religion. The boundaries granted by the charter and his
to the said William Penn, and his heirs were, “ all that tract charter.
or part of land in America, with the islands therein contained, the as the same is bounded on the eart by Delaware river, from twelve miles distance northwards of Newcastle town, unto the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, if the river doch
extend so far north ward: but, if the said river thall not ex-
Having thus described the bounds laid down by this
The third section secures the true and absolute property Contents of
(A) Though we only mention Mr. Penn, yet his heirs, execu-
nances be not extended in any sort to bind, change, or take away the right or interest of any person or persons for, or in, their life, members, freehold, goods, or chartels.
By the seventh section it is provided that a transcript or duplicate of all laws, so made and published as aforesaid, shall, within five years after the making thereof, be transmitted and delivered to the privy council for the time being; and, if declared by the king in council inconsistent with the lovereignty or lawful prerogative of the crown, or contrary to the faith and allegiance due to the legal government of this realm, shall be adjudged void. The eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, iwelfth, and thirteenth sections contain little, but what is in common to other proprietary governments. By the fourteenth section Mr. Penn is obliged to have an attorney or agent to be his resident-representative, at some known place in London, who is to be answerable to the crown for any misdeameanor committed, or wilful default, or neglect permitted by the said Penn against the laws of trade and navigațion ; and to defray the damages in his majesty's courts ascertained ; and, in case of failure, the government to be refumed and retained till payment has been made ; without any prejudice, however, in any respect to the landholders or inhabitants, who are not to be affected or molested thereby. The sections fourteenth, fifteenth, fixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth, contain nothing particular. By the twentieth section, his majesty covenants and grants to and with the said William Penn, for himself, his heirs, and successors, at no time thereafter to impose or levy any tax on the inhabitants in any shape, unless the same be with the confent of the proprietary, or chief governor, or assembly, or by act of parliament in England.
By the twenty-first section; his majesty, on pair of his highest displeasure, commands all his officers and minifters, that they do not presume at any time to attempt any thing to the contrary of the premises, or that they do in any fore withstand the fame : and, on the contrary, injoins them to be at all time, aiding and affifting, as was fitting; to the faid IVilliam Penn, and his heirs, and unto the inhabitants and merchants of the province aforesaid, their servants; ministers, factors, and assigns, in the full use and fruition of the benefit of the said charter. By the twenty-third and last section, a provifion is made, by the king's special will, ordinance, and command, that, in case any doubt or queftion should there. after perchance arise concerning the true sense or meaning of any word, clause, or sentence contained therein, such interpretation should be made thereof, and allowed in any of