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example; for in the opinion of very wife men, the univerfality of the French language will make way for the universality of the French monarchy.

But it was not only in foreign dispatches that the government made use of his pen. He had discharged the business of his office a very little time, before he was called to a work of another kind. For foon after the King's death was published a book under his name intitled Eikon Bafilike, or the royal image: and this book, like Cæfar's laft will, making a deeper impression, and exciting greater commiferation in the minds of the people, than the King himself did while alive, Milton was ordered to prepare an answer to it, which was published by authority, and intitled Eikouoilaftes or the image-breaker, the famous furname of many Greek emperors, who in their zeal against idolatry broke all fuperftitious images to pieces. This piece was translated into French; and two replies to it were published, one in 1651, and the other in 1692, upon the reprinting of Milton's book at Amsterdam. In this controversy a heavy charge hath been alleged against Milton. Some editions of the King's book have certain prayers added at the end, and among them a prayer in time of captivity, which is taken from that of Pamela in Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia: and it is said, that this prayer was added by the contrivance and artifice of Milton, who together with Bradshaw prevailed upon the printer to infert it, that from thence he might take occafion to bring a scandal upon the King, and to blaft the reputation of his book, as he hath attempted to do in the first section of his answer. This fact is related chiefly upon the authority of Henry Hills the printer, who had frequently affirmed it to Dr. Gill and Dr. Bernard his phyficians, as they themselves have teftified. But Hills was not himself the printer, who was dealt with in this manner, and consequently he could have the story only from hearsay: and tho' he was Cromwell's printer, yet after



wards he turned papist in the reign of James II, in order to be that King's printer, and it was at that time that he used to relate this story; so that I think, little credit is due to his testimony. And indeed I cannot but hope and believe, that Milton had a foul above being guilty of fo mean an action to ferve fo mean a purpose; and there is as little reafon for fixing it upon him, as he had to traduce the King for profaning the duty of prayer "with the polluted trash of Romances." For there are not many finer prayers in the best books of devotion; and the King might as lawfully borrow and apply it to his own occafions, as the Apoftle might make quotations from Heathen poems and plays: and it became Milton the leaft of all men to bring fuch an accufation against the King, as he was himself particularly fond of reading romances, and has made use of them in fome of the best and latest of his writings.

But his moft celebrated work in profe is his Defense of the people of England against Salmafius, Defenfio pro populo Anglicano contra Claudii Anonymi, alias Salmafii, Defenfionem Regiam. Salmafius, by birth a Frenchman, fucceeded the famous Scaliger as honorary Profeffor of the university of Leyden, and had gained great reputation by his Plinian Exercitations on Solinus, and by his critical remarks on several Latin and Greek authors, and was generally esteemed one of the greatest and most confummate scholars of that age: and is commended by Milton himself in his Reason of Church Government, and called the learned Salmafius. And befides his great learning he had extraordinary talents in railing. "This prince "of scholars, as fome body faid of him, seemed to have " erected his throne upon a heap of ftones, that he might "have them at hand to throw at every one's head who "paffed by." He was therefore courted by Charles II, as the most able man to write a defense of the late King his father and to traduce his adversaries, and a hundred


Jacobuses were given him for that purpose, and the book was published in 1649 with this title Defenfio Regia pro Carolo I ad Carolum II. No fooner did this book appear in England, but the Council of State unanimously appointed Milton, who was then present, to answer it: and he performed the task with amazing spirit and vigor, tho' his health at that time was such, that he could hardly indure the fatigue of writing, and being weak in body he was forced to write by piece-meal, and to break off almost every hour, as he says himself in the introduction. This neceffarily occafioned fome delay, fo that his Defense of the people of England was not made public till the beginning of the year 1651: and they who cannot read the original, may yet have the pleasure of reading the English translation by Mr. Washington of the Temple, which was printed in 1692, and is inferted among Milton's works in the two laft editions. It was fomewhat extraordinary, that Salmafius, a penfioner to a republic, fhould pretend to write a defense of monarchy, but the States fhowed their disapprobation by publickly condemning his book, and ordering it to be fuppreffed. And on the other hand Milton's book was burnt at Paris, and at Tolouse by the hands of the common hangman; but this ferved only to procure it the more readers: it was read and talked of every where, and even they who were of different principles, yet could not but acknowledge that he was a good defender of a bad caufe; and Salmafius's book underwent only one impreffion, while this of Milton paffed thro' feveral editions. On the first appearance of it, he was vifited or invited by all the foreign minifters at London, not excepting even thofe of crowned heads; and was particularly honored and esteemed by Adrian Paaw, embasfador from the States of Holland. He was likewife highly complimented by letters from the most learned and ingenious perfons in France and Germany; and Leonard Philaras, an Athenian born, and embassador from the d 2 Duke

Duke of Parma to the French king, wrote a fine encomium of his Defense, and sent him his picture, as appears from Milton's Letter to Philaras dated at London in June 1652. And what gave him the greatest fatisfaction, the work was highly applauded by thofe, who had defired him to undertake it; and they made him a present of a thousand pounds, which in thofe days of frugality was reckoned no inconfiderable reward for his performance. But the cafe was far otherwise with Salmafius. He was then in high favor at the court of Chriftina Queen of Sweden, who had invited thither several of the most learned men of all countries: but when Milton's defenfe of the people of England was brought to Sweden, and was read to the Queen at her own defire, he funk immediately in her esteem and the opinion of every body; and tho' he talked big at first, and vowed the destruction of Milton and the Parlament, yet finding that he was looked upon with coldness, he thought proper to take leave of the court; and he who came in honor, was difmiffed with contempt. He died fome time afterwards at Spa in Germany, and it is faid more of a broken heart than of any distemper, leaving a posthumous reply to Milton, which was not published till after the Restoration, and was dedicated to Charles II. by his fon Claudius; but it has done no great honor to his memory, abounding with abuse much more than argument.

Ifaac Voffius was at Stockholm, when Milton's book was brought thither, and in some of his letters to Nicholas Heinfius, published by Profeffor Burman in the third tome of his Sylloge Epistolarum, he says, that he had the only copy of Milton's book, that the Queen borrowed it of him, and was very much pleased with it, and commended Milton's wit and manner of writing in the prefence of feveral perfons, and that Salmafius was very angry, and very bufy in preparing his answer, wherein he abused Milton as if he had been one of the vileft catamites


in Italy, and also criticized his Latin poems. writes again to Voffius from Holland, that he wondered that only one copy of Milton's book was brought to Stockholm, when three were fent thither, one to the Queen, another to Voffius which he had received, and the third to Salmafius; that the book was in every body's hands, and there had been four editions in a few months befides the English one; that a Dutch translation was handed about, and a French one was expected. And afterwards he writes from Venice, that Holstenius had lent him Milton's Latin poems; that they were nothing, compared with the elegance of his Apology; that he had offended frequently against profody, and here was a great opening for Salmafius's criticism: but as to Milton's having been a catamite in Italy, he says, that it was a mere calumny; on the contrary he was disliked by the Italians, for the severity of his manners, and for the freedom of his discourses against popery. And in others of his letters to Voffius and to J. Fr. Gronovius from Holland, Heinfius mentions how angry Salmafius was with him for commending Milton's book, and fays that Grafwinkelius had written fomething against Milton, which was to have been printed by Elzevir, but it was fuppreffed by public authority.


The first reply that appeared was published in 1651, and intitled an Apology for the king and people &c, Apologia pro rege et populo Anglicano contra Johannis Polipragmatici (alias Miltoni Angli) Defenfionem deftructivam regis et populi Anglicani. It is not known, who was the author of this piece. Some attribute it to one Janus a lawyer of Grays-Inn, and others to Dr. John Bramhall, who was then Bishop of Derry, and was made Primate of Ireland after the Restoration: but it is utterly improbable, that so mean a performance, written in fuch barbarous Latin, and fo full of folœcifms, fhould come from the hands of a prelate of such distinguished abilities and

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