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LIII. In process of time, as Periander advanced in years, he began to feel himself inadequate to the cares of government; he sent therefore for Lycophron to Corcyra, to take upon him the adminiftration of affairs : his eldest son appeared improper for such a station, and was indeed dull and stupid. Of the messenger who brought him this intelligence Lycophron disdained to take the smallest notice. But Periander, as he felt his affection for the young man to be unalterable, fent to him his fifter, thinking her interposition most likely to succeed. When she saw him, “ Brother,” said she, “ will you fuffer “ the sovereign authority to pass into other hands, « and the wealth of our family to be dispersed, " rather than return to enjoy them yourself? Let

oracle to bring Æsculapius to Rome; they accordingly dispatched ambassadors to Epidaurus to accomplish this. The Epidaurians refusing to part with their god, the Romans prepared to depart : as their vessel was quitting the port, an immense serpent came swimming towards them, and finally wreathed itself round the prow; the crew, thinking it to be Æl. culapius himself, carried him with much veneration to Rome. -His entrance is finely described by Ovid :

Jamque caput rerum Romanam intraverat urbem
Erigitur serpens_summoque acclivia malo

Colla movet : fedefque fibi circumfpicit aptas. Which description, fully confidered, would perhaps afford no mean subject for an historical painting.

Epidaurus was also famous for its breed of horses. See Virgil, Georgic iii. 43, 4.

Vcc at ingenti clamore Cithæron

Taygetique canes, domitrixque Epidaurus equorum. The same is also mentioned by Strabo, book viii.-T.

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* me entreat you to punish yourself no more; re“ turn to your country and your family: obsti“ nacy like yours is but an unwelcome guest, it only “ adds one evil to another. Pity is by many pre« ferred to justice; and many, from their anxiety to “ fulfil their duty to a mother, have violated that “ which a father might expect. Power, which “ many fo’assiduously court, is in its nature preca“'rious. Your father is growing old, do not therefore resign to others honours which are properly “ your own." Thus instructed by her father, she used every argument likely to influence her brother; but he briefly answered, " that as long as his father “ lived he would not return to Corinth.” When she had communicated this answer to Periander, he sent a third messenger to his son, informing him, that it was his intention to retire to Corcyra ; but that he might return to Corinth, and take possession of the supreme authority. This proposition was accepted, and Periander prepared to depart for Corcyra, the young man for Corinth. But when the Corcyreans were informed of the business, to prevent the arrival of Periander among them they put his son to death.-- This was what induced that prince to take vengeance of the Corcyreans.

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LIV. The Lacedæmonians arriving with a powerful feet, laid siege to Samos, and advancing towards the walls, they passed by a tower' which stands in the suburbs, not far from the sea. At this junc'ture Polycrates attacked them, at the head of a considerable force, and compelled them to retreat.

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He was instantly seconded by a band of auxiliaries, and a great number of Samians, who falling upon the enemy from a fort which was behind the mountain, after a short conflict effectually routed them, and continued the pursuit with great slaughter of the Lacedæmonians.

LV. If all the Lacedæmonians in this engage: ment had behaved like Archias and Lycopas, Samos must certainly have been taken ; for thefe two alone entered the city, with those Samians who fought security within the walls, and having nó means of retreat were there Nain. I nyfelf one day met with a person of the same name, who was the son of Samius, and grandson of the Archias abovementioned; I saw him at Pitane, of which place he was a native. This person paid more attention to Samians than to other foreigners; and he told me, that his father was called Samius, as being the

67 Pitane.] This proper name involves some perplexity, and has afforded exercise for mach acute and ingenious criticism. Martiniere, from mistaking a passage of Pausanias, affèrts that it was merely a quarter, or rather suburbs of Lacedæmon, and is consequently often confounded with it. This mistake is ably pointed out and refuted by Bellanger, in his Critique de quelques Articles du Dict. de M. la Martiniere. This word is found in Hesychius, as descriptive of a distinct tribe; in Thucydides of a small town; and in Herodotus of a whole people: See book ix. chap. 52, where he speaks of the cohort of Pitane; which in the glorious battle of Platea was commanded by Amompharetus. It is certain that there were several places of this name; the one here specified was doubtless on the banksof the Eurotas, in Laconia.-See Efais de Critique, &c. 316.

immediate

immediate descendant of him, who with so much honour had lost his life at Samos. The reason of his thus distinguishing the Samians, was becaufe they had honoured his grandfather by a public fua neral 02

LVÍ. The Lacedæmonians, after remaining forty days before the place without any advantage, returned to the Peloponnese. It is reported, though

$2 Public funeral. 1-The manner in which the funerals of those who had died in defence of their country were solemnized at Athens, cannot fail of giving the English reader an elevated idea of that polished people.

On an appointed day a number of coffins made of cypress wood, and containing the benes of the deceased, were exposed to view beneath a large tent erected for the purpose; they who had relations to deplore, assembled to weep over them, and pay the duties dictàted by tenderness or enjoined by religion. Three days afterwards the coffins were placed upon as many cars as · there were tribes, and were carried slowly through the town, to the Ceramicus, where funeral games were celebrated. The bodies were deposited in the earth, and their relations and friends paid for the last time the tribute of their tears; an orátor appointed by the republic from an elevated place pronounced a funeral oration over his valiant countrymen; each tribe raised over the graves some kind of column, upon which was inscribed the names of the deceased, their age, and the place where they died.

The above fòlemnities were conducted under the inspection of one of the principal magistrates:

The most magnificent public funeral of which we have any account, was that of Alexander the Great, when his body was brought from Babylon to Alexandria; a minute description of which is given by Diodorus Siculus.

For a particular defcription of the ceremonies observed at public and private funerals, amongst the Romans, consult Montfaucon.-7. VOL. II.

absurdly

absurdly enough, that Polycrates struck off a grešt number of pieces of lead cased with gold, like the coin of the country, and that with these he purchased their departure.—This was the first expedition of the Dorians of Lacedæmon into Asia.

LVII. Those Samians who had taken up arms against Polycrates, when they saw themselves forfaken by the Lacedæmonians, and were distressed from want of money; embarked for Siphnos 64 At

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63 Lead cased with gold. --Similar to this artifice, was that practised on the people of Gortyna in Crete, by Hannibal, as Tecorded by Justin. After the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans, Hannibal retired to Gortyna, carrying with him an immenfe treasure. This circumstance exciting an invidiousness against him, he pretended to depofit his riches in the temple of Diana, to which place he carried with much ceremony several veffels filled with lead. He soon took an opportunity of passing over into Asia with his real wealth, which he had concealed in the images of the gods he affected to worship.-I.

64 Siphnos.] -- This was one of those small islands lying oppo. fite to Attica: They were seventeen in number, and called, from their situation with respect to each other, the Cyclades ; they were all eminently beautiful, and severally distinguished by fome appropriate excellence. The marble of Päros was of inimitable whiteness, and of the finest grain ; Andros and Naxos produced the most exquifite wine; Amengos was famous for a die made from a lichen, growing there in valt abundance. The fiches of Siphnos are extolled by many ancient writers; it is now called Siphanto.

The following account of the modern circumstances of Siph. nos, is extracted principally from Tournefort,

It is remarkable for the purity of its air; the water, fruits and poultry are very excellent. Although covered with marble and granite, it is one of the most fertile islands of the Archipe.

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