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fisherman, delighted with his reception, returned to his house. The servants proceeding to open the fish, found in its paunch the ring of Polycrates; with great eagerness and joy they hastened to carry it to the king, telling him where they had met with it. Polycrates concluded that this incident bore evident marks of divine interposition; he therefore wrote down every particular of what had happened, and transmitted it to Ægypt. . .

XLIII. Amasis, after perusing the letter of his friend, was convinced that it was impossible for one mortal to deliver another from the destiny which awaited him; he was satisfied that Polycrates could not terminate his days in tranquillity, whose good fortune had never suffered interruption, and who had even recovered what he had taken pains to lose. He sent therefore a herald to Samos, to disclaim all fua ture connection 52, hiš inotive for doing which was

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meanest rank to solicit and obtain an audience of his princes diminishes the act of condescension which is here recorded, and which to a modern reader may appear ridiculous.---T. · 52 Future conne&tion.].--This may be adduced as one amongst numerous other instances, to prove, that where the human mind has no folid hopes of the future, nor any firm basis of religionsfaith, the conduct will ever be wayward and irregular; and although there may exist great qualities, capable of occasionally {plendid actions, there will also be extraordinary weaknesses, irreconcileable to common sense or common humanity. Diodorus Siculus, however, gives a very different account of the thatter, and ascribes the behaviour of Arnasis to a very different motive:-" The AEgyptian,” says he, “ was so difgusted

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the apprehension, that in any future calamity which might befall Polycrates, he, as a friend and ally, might be obliged to bear a part.

. XLIV. Against this Polycrates, in all things fa prosperous, the Lacedæmonians undertook an expe. dition, to which they were induced by those Samians who afterwards built the city of Cydon in Crete 53. To counteract this blow, Polycrates sent privately to Cambyses, who was then preparing for hostilities against fgypt, entreating him to demand fupplies and assistance of the Samians. With this Cambyses willingly complied, and sent to folicit, in favour of Polycrates, fome naval force to serve in his Ægyptian expedition. Those whose principles and intentions he most suspected the Sarnian prince selected from the rest, and fent in forty triremes to Cambyses, requesting him by all means to prevent their return.

XLV. There are fome who affert that the Samians sent by Polycrates, never arrived in Ægypt, but that as soon as they reached the Carpathian fea they consulted together, and determined to proceed

with the tyrannical behaviour of Polycrates, not only to is subjects but to strangers, that he foresaw his fate to be unavoidable, and therefore was cautious not to be involved in his ruin.”-T

53 Cydon in Crete.)-This place is now called Canea: fome say it was at first called Apollonia, because built by Cydon the son of Apollo Pausanias says, it was built by Cydon, fon of Tegetes. It was once a place of great power, and the largest city in the island; for a description of its present condifign, see Savary's Letters on Greece.-T,

no further. Others, on the contrary, affirm, that they did arrive in Ægypt, but that they escaped from their guards, and returned to Samos: they add, that Polycrates met and engaged them at sea, where he was defeated ; but that landing afterwards on the island, they had a second engagement by land, in which they were totally routed, and obliged to fly to Lacedæmon. They who assert that the Samians returned from Ægypt, and obtained a victory over Polycrates, are in my opinion mistaken ; for if their own force was sufficient to overcome him, there was no necessity for their applying to the Lacedæmonians for alítance. Neither is it at all consistent with probability, that a prince who had so many forces under his command, composed as well of foreign auxiliaries as of archers of his own, could possibly be overcome by the few Samians who were returning home. · Polycrates, moreover, had in his power the wives and children of his Samian subjects: these were all assembled and confined in his different harbours; and he was determined to destroy them by fire, and the hai bours along with them, in case of any treasonable conjunction between the inhabitants and the Samians who were returning,

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XLVI. The Samians who were expelled by Polycrates immediately on their arrival at Sparta obtained an audience of the magistrates, and in the language of fuppliants spoke a great while. The answer which they first received informed them, that the commencement of their discourse was not remembered, and the conclusion not understood.

At At the second interview they simply produced a bread-basket, and complained that it contained no bread; even to this the Lacedæmonians replied, that their observation was unnecessary 54;- they determined nevertheless to assist them.

XLVII. After the necessary preparations, the Lacedæmonians embarked with an army against Samos: if the Samians may be credited, the conduct of the Lacedæmonians in this business was the effect of gratitude, they themselves having formerly received a supply of ships against the Messenians. But the Lacedæmonians affert, that they engaged in this expedition not so much to satisfy the wishes of those Samians who had fought their assistance, as to obtain satisfaction for an injury which they had formerly received. The Samians had violently taken away a goblet which the Lacedæmonians

54 Observation was unnecessary. ]-The Spartans were always remarkable for their contempt of oratory and eloquence. The following curious examples of this are recorded in Sextus Empiricus :-“ A young Spartan went abroad, and endeavoured to accomplish himself in the art of speaking; on his return he was punished by the Ephori, for having conceived the design of ie. luding his countrymen. Another Spartan was sent to Tiffaphernes, a Persian satrap, to engage him to prefer the alliance of Sparta to that of Athens ; he said but little, but when he found the Athenians employed great pomp and profusion of words, he drew two lines, both terminating in the same point, but one was straight, the other very crooked; pointing these out to Tiffapher. nes, he merely' said, “. Choose.” The story here related of the Samians, by Herodotus, is found also in Sextus Empiricus, but is þy him applied on a different occasion, and to a different people,

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· 56

| T H A L 1 A. were carrying to Cræsus, and a corselet $5, which was given them by Annasis king of Ægypt. This latter incident took place at the interval of a year after the former : the corselet was made of linen, but there were interwoven in the piece a great number of animals richly embroidered with cotton and gold; every part of it deserved admiration; it was composed of chains, each of which contained three hundred and sixty threads distinctly visible. Amafis presented another corselet, entirely' resembling this, to the Minerva of Lindus.

XLVIII. To this expedition against Samos the Corinthians also contributed with considerable ardour. In the age which preceded, and about the time in which the goblet had been taken, they had been affronted by the Samians. Periander 56, the

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55 A corselet.]~Some fragments of this were to be seen in the time of Pliny, who complains that so curious a piece of workmanihip should be spoiled, by its being unravelled by different people, to gratify curiosity, or to ascertain the fact here asserted. -T.

56 Periander.] The life of Periander is given by Diogenes Laertius; from which I have extracted such particulars as seem most worthy the attention of the English reader,

He was of the family of the Heraclidæ; and the reason of hią sending the young Corcyreans, with the purpose mentioned by Herodotus, was on account of their having killed his son, to whom he wished to resign hiş power. He was the first prince who used guards for the defence of his person. He was by some esteemed one of the seven wise men ; Plato, however, does not admit him amongst them. His celebrated saying was, that Perseverance may do every thing.”

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