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" you command me; I should rather think it will « be more consistent for you, being a prince and a “ general, to contend with one who is a prince « and general also. -- If you should fortunately

kill a person of this description, you will acquire « great glory, or if you should fall by his hand, “ which heaven avert, the calamity is somewhat « softened by the rank of the conqueror: it is for « us of inferior rank to oppose men like ourselves. "As to the horse, do not concern yourself about “ what he has been taught; I will venture to say, " that he shall never again be troublesome to any « one.”

· CXII. In a short time afterwards, the hoftile forces engaged both by sea and land; the lonians, after a fevere contest, obtained a victory over the Phænicians, in which the bravery of the Samians was remarkably conspicuous. Whilft the armies were engaged by land, the following incident happened to the two generals :-Artybius, mounted on his horse, rushed against Onesilus, who, as he had concerted with his servant, aimed a blow at him as he approached : and whilst the horse reared up his feet against the shield of Onesilus, the Carian cuť them off with an ax.- The horse, with his master, fell instantly to the ground. . .

· CXIII. In the midst of the battle, Stesenor, prince of Curium, with a considerable body of forces, went over to the enemy (it is said that the Curians are an Argive colony); their example was

followed

followed by the men of Salamis, in their chariots of war 142 ; from which events the Persians obtained a decisive victory. The Cyprians fled. Amongst the number of the Nain was Onesilus, son of Chersis, and principal instigator of the revolt; the Solian prince, Aristocyprus, also fell, son of that Philocypruş !43; whom Solon of Athens, when at Cyprus, celebrated in verse amongst other fovereign princes,

• CXIV. In revenge for his besieging them, the Amathufians took the head of Onesilus, and carrying it back in triumph, fixed it over their gates : some time afterwards, when the inside of the head was decayed, a swárm of bees settling in it, filled it with honey, The people of Amathus consulted the oracle on the occasion, and were directed to bury the head, and every year to sacrifice to Onefilus as to an hero. their obedience involved a promise of future prosperity; and even within my

142 Chariots of war.] Of these chariots, frequent mention is made in Homer : they carried two men, one of whom guided the reins, the other fought. Various specimens of ancient chariots may be seen in Montfaucon.-T.

. 143 Philocyprus,]—Philocyprus was prince of Soli, when Solon arrived at Cyprus; Solis was then called Æpeia, and the approaches to it were steep and difficult, and its neighbourhood unfruitful. Solon advised the prince to rebuild it on the plain which it overlooked, and undertook the labour of furnishing it with inhabitants. In this he succeeded, and Philocyprus, from gratitude, gave his city the name of the Athenian philosopher. Solon mentions this incident in some verses addressed to Philocyprus, preserved in Plutarch.---Larcher.

I i 2

remembrance,

remembrance, they have performed what was required of them

CXV. The Ionians, although successful in the naval engagement off Cyprus, as soon as they heard of the defeat and death of Onesilus, and that all the cities of Cyprus were clofely blockaded, except Salamis, which the citizens had restored to Gorgus, their former sovereign, returned with all possible expedition to Ionia. Of all the towns in Cyprus, Soli made the longest and most vigorous defence; but of this, by undermining the place, the Persians obtażned possession after a five months siege.

CXVI. Thus the Cyprians, having enjoyed their liberties for the space of a year, were a second time reduced to servitude. All the Ionians who had been engaged in the expedition against Sardis were afterwards vigorously attacked by Daurises, Hy. mees, Otanes, and other Persian generals, each of

whom had married a daughter of Darius : they first * drove them to their ships, then took and plundered

their towns, which they divided amongst themfelves.

CXVII. Daurises afterwards turned his arms against the cities of the Hellespont, and in as many successive days made himself master of Abydos, Percotes, Lampsacus 144, and Pæson, From this

latter

$14 Lampfachs. )-This place was given to Themistocles to

furnish latter place he proceeded to Parion, but learning on his niarch, that the Carians, taking part with the Ionians, had revolted from Persia, he turned aside from the Hellefpont, and led his forces against Caría.

CXVIII. Of this motion of Daurises the Carians had early information, in consequence of · which they assembled at a place called the white columns, not far from the river Marsyas, which, passing through the district of Hidryas, flows into the Mæander. Various sentiments were on this occasion delivered; but the most sagacious in my esti mation was that of Pixodarus, son of Mausolus; he was a native of Cindys, and had married the daughof Syennesis, prince of Cilicia. He advised, that passing the Mæànder, they should attack the enemy, with the river in their rear; that thus deprived of all possibility of retreat, they should from compulfion stand their ground, and make the greater exertions of valour. This advice was not accepted; they chose rather that the Persians should have the Mæander behind them, that if they vanquished the enemy in the field, they might afterwards drive them into the river,

CXIX. The Persians advanced, and passed the Mæander ; the Carians met them on the banks of

furnish him wine, and was memorable in antiquity for produc. ing many eminent men.- Epicurus resided here a long time. T.

the

the Marfyas, when a severe and well fought conteft ensued. The Persians had so greatly the advantage in point of number, that they were finally victorious; two thousand Persians, and ten thousand Carians fell in the battle; they who escaped from the field fled to Labranda, and took refuge in a facred wood of planes, surrounding a temple of Jupiter Stratius 14. The Carians are the only people, as far as I have been able to learn, who facrifice to this Jupiter. Driven to the above extremity, they deliberated amongst themselves, whether it would be better to surrender themselves to the Perfians, or finally relinquish Asia.

CXX. In the midst of their consultation, the Milesians with their allies arrived to reinforce them; the Carians resumed their courage, and again prepared for hostilities; they a second time advanced to meet the Persians, and after an engagement more

145 Jupiter Stratius-for Jupiter the warrior.)-The Carians were the only people, in the time of Herodotus, who worfhipped Jupiter under this title. He was particularly honoured at Labranda, and therefore Strabo calls him the Labrandinian Jupiter, He held a hatchet in his hand, and Plutarch (in his Greek Questions) relates the reason; he was afterwards worhipped in other places under the same appellation. Amongit the marbles at Oxford, there is a stone which seems to have * ferved for an altar, having an ax, and this inscription ; 4102 AABPAYNAQT KAI AIOE METICETOY-Of the Labraindian Jupiter and of the very Great Jupiter. It was found in a Turkish cemetery, between Aphrodisias and Hieropolis, and confequently in Caria, though at a great distance from Labranda. Larcher. 5 .

obstinate

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