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thens accordingly agreed to send to the assistance of the Ionians, twenty vessels of war, of which Mez lanthius, a very amiable and popular character, was to have the command. This fleet was the source of the calamities 133 which afterwards ensued to the Greeks and Barbarians.

XCVIII. Before their departure, Ariftagoras returned to Miletus, where he contrived a measure from which no advantage could possibly result to the Ionians. Indeed, his principal motive was to distress Darius. He dispatched a messenger into Phrygia, to those Pæonians who from the banks of the Strymon had been led away captive by. Megabyzus, and who inhabited a district appropriated to them. His emissaries thus addressed them: “ Men of Pæonia, I am commissioned by Aristagoras, prince of Miletus, to say, that if you will “ follow his counsel, you may be free. The whole « of lonia has revolted from Persia, and it becomes “ you to seize this opportunity of returning to your “ native country. You have only to appear on « the banks of the ocean; we will provide for the

133 Source of the calamities.]_This is another of the examples which Plutarch adduces in proof of the malice of Herodotus. “ He has the audacity," says Plutarch, “ to afárm, that the vessels which the Athenians sent to the allistance of the Ionians, who had revolted from the Persians, were the cause of the evils which afterwards ensued, merely because they endeavoured to deliver so many, and such illustrious Grecian cites from servi. tudé.” In point of argument, a weaker tract than this of Plutarch was never written, and this assertion in particular is too absurd to require any formal refutation.---T,

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reft.” The Pæonians received this information with great fatisfaction, and with their wives and children fled towards the sea. Some, however, yielding to their fears, remained behind. From the seacoast they passed over to Chios: here they had scarce disembarked, before a large body of Persian cavalry, sent in pursuit of them, appeared on the opposite shore. Unable to overtake them, they sent over to them at Chios, foliciting their return. This however had no effect: from Chios they were transported to Lesbos, from Lesbos to Doriscus 134, and from hence they proceeded by land to Pæonia. . .

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. XCIX. At this juncture, Aristagoras was joined by the Athenians in twenty vessels, who were also accompanied by five triremes of Eretrians. These latter did not engage in the contest from any regard for the Athenians, but to discharge a similar debt of friendship to the Milesians. The Milesians had formerly assisted the Eretrians against the Chalcidians, when the Samians had united with them against the Eretrians and Milesians. When these and the rest of his confederates were assembled, Aristagoras commenced an expedition against Sardis; he himself continued at Miletus, whilst his brother Charopinus commanded the Milesians, and Hermophantus had the conduct of the allies,

534 Doriscus.]—Doriscus is memorable for being the place where Xerxes numbered his army.-T.

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C. The Ionians arriving with their fleet at Ephefus, disembarked at Coreffas, a place in its vicinity. Taking fome Ephesians for their guides, they adyanced with a formidable force, directing their march towards the Cayfter 35. Passing over mount Tmolus, they arrived at Sardis, where meeting no resistance, they made themselves masters of the whole of the city, except the citadel. This was defended by Artaphernes himself, with a large body of troops.

CI. The following incident preserved the city from plunder: the houses of Sardis 136 were in general constructed of reeds; such few as were of brick had reed coverings. One of these being set on fire by a soldier, the flames fpread from house ta house, till the whole city was consumed. In the midft of the conflagration, the Lydians, and such Persians as were in the city, seeing themselves surrounded by the flames, and without the possibility of escape, rushed in crowds to the forum, through the center of which flows the Pactolus. This river

+39 Cayster. )-This river was very famous in claffic story., "It anciently abounded with swans, and from its serpentine course has sometimes been confounded with the Mæander; but the Mæander was the appropriate river of the Milesians, as mas the Cayster of the Ephesians. The name the Turks now give it is Chiay.--T.

136 Sardis.}--The reader will recollect that Sardis was the capital of Cresus, which is here represented as consisting only of a number of thatched houses, a proof that architecture had as yet made no progress.-T.

brings,

brings, in its descent from mounç Tmolus, a quantity of gold duft +39 ; passing, as we have described, through Sardis, it mixes with the Hermus, till both are finally lost in the sea. The Persians and Ly. dians thus reduced to the laft extremity, were compelled to act on the defensive. The lonians seeing some of the enemy prepared to defend themselves, others advancing to attack them, were seized with a panic, and retired to mount Tmolus '8, from whence, under favour of the night, they retreated to their fhips.

CII. In the burning of Sardis, the temple of Cybele, che tutelar goddess of the country, was totally destroyed, which was afterwards made a prerence by the Persians for burning the temples of the Greeks. When the Persians who dwell on this side the Halys were acquainted with the above invasion, they determined to assist the Lydians. Following the Ionians regularly from Sardis, they came up with them at Ephesus. A general engagement ensued, in which the Ionians were defeated with

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137 Gold duft.] It had ceased to do this in the time of Strabo, that is to say, in the age of Augustus.-Larcher.

138 Tmolus. ]-Strabo enumerates mount Tmolus amongst the places which produced the most excellent vines. It was also celebrated for its saffron. -See Virgil,

Nonne vides croceos ut Tmolus odores, &c. It was also called Timolus. See Ovid,

Deferuere sui nymphæ vineta Timoli. It is now named Timolitze.-T.:

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great slaughter. Amongst others of distinction who fell, was Eualcis, chief of the Eretrians : he had frequently been victorious in many contests, of which a garland was the reward, and had been particularly, celebrated by Simonides of Ceos 139 They who escaped from this battle took refuge in the different cities. .

CIII. After the event of the above expedition, the Athenians withdrew themselves entirely from the lonians, and refused all the folicitations of Ariftagoras by his ambassadors, to repeat their assistance. The Ionians, though deprived of this resource, conținued with no less alacrity to persevere in the hostilities they had commenced against Darius. They failed to the Hellespont, and reduced Byzantium, with the neighbouring cities: quitting that part again, and advancing to Caria, the greater part of

139 Simonides of Ceos.). There were several poets of this name; the celebrated fatire against women was written by an, other and more modern Simonides. The great excellence of this Simonides of Ceos was elegiac compofition, in which Dionyfius Halicarnassus does not scruple to prefer him to Pindar. The invention of local memory was ascribed to him, and it is not a little remarkable, that at the age of eighty, he contended for and won a poetical prize. His most memorable faying was concerning God. Hiero asked him what God was? After many and reiterated delays, his answer was, “ The longer I meditate upon it, the more obscure the subject appears to me.” He is reproached for having been the first who prostituted his muse for mercenary purposes. Bayie seems to have collected every thing of moment relative to this Simcnides, to whom for more minute particulars, I refer the reader.-T.

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