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beheld a tall and comely personage, who addressed him in these ambiguous terms: .

Brave lion, thy unconquer'd foul compofe
To meet unmov'd intolerable woes :
In vain th’ oppressor would elude his fate,

The vengeance of the gods is sure, though late, As soon as the morning appeared, he disclosed what he had seen to the interpreters of dreams. He however slighted the vision, and was killed in the cele bration of some public festival,

LVII. The Gephyreans, of which nation were the assassins of Hipparchus, came, as themselves affirm, originally from Eretria. But the result of my enquiries enables me to say that they were Phoenicians, and of those who accompanied Cadmus into the region now called Boeotia, where they settled, having the district of Tanagria assigned them by lot. The Cadmeans were expelled by the Argives; the Bæorians afterwards drove out the Gephyreans, who took refuge at Athens. The Athenians en

The festival was in honour of Minerva. There were the --- greater and lesser Panathenxa. The lesser originated with

Theseus; these were celebrated every year in the month Hecatombeon; the greater were celebrated every five years. În the procession on this occasion old men, selected for their good persons, carried branches of olive. There were also saces with torches both on horse and foot; there was also a musical contention. The conqueror in any of these games was rewarded with a vessel of oil. There was also a dance by

boys in armour. The vest of Minerva was carried in a fa.. , cred procession of persons of all ages, &c. &c.-I.



rolled them amongst their citizens, under certain restrictions of trifling importance.

LVIII. The Phænicians who came with Cadmus, and of whom the Gephyreans were a part, introduced during their residence in Greece various articles of science; and amongst other things letters, with which, as I conceive, the Greeks were


69. Amongst other things letters.]- Upon the subject of the invention of letters, it is necessary to say something; but so much has been written by others, that the task of selection, though all that is necessary, becomes sufficiently difficult.

The first introduction of letters into Greece has been gene. rally afligned to Cadmus; but this has often been controve, ted, no, arguments on either side have been adduced sufficiently strong to be admitted as decisive. It is probable that they were in use in Greece before Cadmus, which Diodorus Siculus confidently affirms. But Lucan, in a very enlightened period of the Roman empire, without any more intimation of doubt, than is implied in the words famæ fi creditur, wrote thus :

Phænices primi, famæ fi creditur, ausi
Mansuram rudibus, vocem fignare figuris
Nondum Aumineas Memphis contexere biblos
Noverat, et faxis tantum, volucresque feræque
Sculptaque servabant magicas animalia linguas.
Phænicians first, if ancient fame be true,
The sacred mystery of letters knew;
They first by sound, in various lines design'd,
Exprest the meaning of the thinking mind,
The power of words by figures rude convey'd,
And ufeful science everlasting made.
Then Memphis, ere the reedy leaf was known,
Engrav'd her precepts and her arts in stone;
While animals, in various order plac'd,
The learned hieroglyphic column grac'd. Rowe.

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before unacquainted. These were at first such as the Phænicians themselves indiscriminately use; in process of time, however, they were changed both in sound and form . At that time the Greeks

To this opinion, concerning the use of hieroglyphics, bishop Warburton accedes, in his Divine Legation of Mofes, who thinks that they were the production of an unimproved state of society, as yet unacquainted with alphabetical writing. With respect to this opinion of Herodotus, many learned men thought it wor. thy of credit, from the resemblance betwixt the old Eastern and earliest Greek characters, which is certainly an argument of some weight. .''

No European nation ever pretended to the honour of this discovery; the Romans confessed they had it from the Greeks, the Greeks from the Phænicians.

Pliny says the use of letters was eternal; and many have made no scruple of ascribing them to a divine revelation. Our countryman Mr. Astle,who has written perhaps the best on this complicated subject, has this expression, with which I shall conclude the subject.

“ The yanity of each nation induces them to pretend to the most early civilization ; but such is the uncertainty of ancient history, that it is difficult to determine to whom the honour is due. It should seem, however, that the contest may be confined to the Ægyptians, Phænicians, and Cadmeans."'-T.

70 In found and form.]-The remark of Dr. Gillies on this passage seems worthy of attention,

“ The eastern tongues are in general extremely deficient in vowels. It is, or rather was, much disputed whether the ancient orientals used any characters to express them : their languages therefore had an inflexible thickness of sound, extremely different from the vocal harmony of the Greek, which abounds not only in vowels but in diphthongs, This circumstance denotes in the Greeks organs of perception more acute, elegante and discerning. They felt such faint variations of liquid sounds as escaped the dulness of Asiatic ears, and invented marks to express them. They diftinguished in this manner not only their articulation, but their quantity, and afterwards their musical intonation.”


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most contiguous to this people were the lonians, who learned these letters of the Phænicians, and, with some trifling variations, received them into common use. As the Phænicians first made them known in Greece, they called them, as justice required, Phænician letters. By a very ancient cuftom, the Ionians call their books diphteræ or skins, because at a time when the plant of the biblos was scarce ?', they used instead of it the skins of goats and sheep. Many of the barbarians have used these skins for this purpose within my recollection.

" LIX. I myself have feen, in the temple of the Ismenian Apollo, at Thebes of Bæotia, these Cadmean letters inscribed upon some tripods, and having a near resemblance to those used by the Ionians. One of the tripods has this inscription 72 :


, 97 Biblos was scarce.].Je ne parlerai point ici de toutes les matieres sur lesquelles on a tracé l'écriture. Les peaux de chevre et de mouton, les differens especes de toile furent succes. fivement employees : on a fait depuis usage du papier tissu des couches interieures de la tige d'une plante qui croit dans les marais de l’Egypte, ou au milieu des eaux dormantes que le Nil laisse apres son inondation. On en fait des rouleaux, a l'extremité, desquels est suspendre une etiquette contenant le titre du livre, L'écriture n'est tracée que sur une des faces de chaque rouleau; et pour en faciliter la lecture, elle s'y trouve divisée en plusieurs compartimens ou pages, &c.--Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis.

Every thing necessary to be known on the subject of paper, its first invention, and progressive improvement, is satisfactorily discussed in the edition of Chambers's Dictionary by Rees.-?.

72 This inscription.]—Some curious inscriptions upon the fields of the warriors who were engaged in the fiege of the


Amphytrion's present from Teleboan spoils. This must have been about the age of Laius, for of Labdacus, whose father was Polydore, the fon of Cadmus.

· LX. Upon the second tripod, are these hexameter yerles :

Scæus, victorious pugilist, bestow'd

Me, a fair offering, on the Delphic god. This Scæus was the son of Hippocoon, if indeed it was he who dedicated the tripod, and not another person of the same name, cotemporary with Edipus the son of Laius.

LXI. The third tripod bears this infcription in hexameters:

Royal Laodamas to Phoebus' shrine . This tripod gave, of workmanship divine. Under this Laodamas, the fon of Eteocles, who had the supreme power, the Cadmeans were expelled by the Argives, and fled to the Encheleans ?3. The Gephyræans were compelled by the Beotians to retire to Athens 74. Here they


capital of Eteocles, are preserved in the « Seven against Thebes of Æschylus," to which the reader is referred.

73 Encheleans.]—The Cadmeans and Encheleans of Herodotus are the Thebans and Illyrians of Pausanias.

16 To Athens. ]—They were permitted to settle on the bord ers of the Cephiffus, which separates Attica from Eleusis; there they built a bridge, in order to have a free communication on both sides. I am of opinion that bridges, yaoupas, took their


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