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"be evident that they speak of me maliciously; if "I miss my aim, they will fay true in affirming that "I am mad." No sooner had he spoken, than he bent his bow, and struck the young man. When he fell, the king ordered his body to be opened, and the wound to be examined. He was rejoiced to find that the arrow had penetrated his heart; and turning to the father with a malicious smile, <c You observe," said he, "that it is not I that am mad, "but the Persians who are foolish. Tell me," he continued, "if you ever saw a man send an arrow w surer to its mark?" Prexaspes, seeing he was mad, and fearing for himself, replied, "I do not *c think, Sir, that even a deity could have aimed "so well." —Such was his treatment of Prexaspes. At another time, without the smallest provocation, he commanded twglve Persians of distinction to b$ . interred alive.

a Swiss of some importance, for a pretended offence, to place an apple on the head of one of his children, and to hit it, on pain of death, with an arrow. He was dexterous enough to do so, without hurting his child. Chiller, when the affair was over, took notice that Tell had another arrow concealed under his cloak, and asked him what it was for ?" I intended," replied Tell, " to have (hot you to the heart, if I had killed my child." The governor ordered Tell to be hanged; but the Swiss, defending their countryman, flew to arms, destroyed their governor, and made themselves independent. See this historical anecdote referred to by Smollet, in his sublime Ode to Independence.

Who with the generous rustics fate

On Uri's rock, in close divan,

And wing'd that arrow, sure as fate,

Which ascertains the sacred rights of man T,

XXXVI. Whilst he was pursuing these extravagancies, Crœsus gave him this advice: ** lj)q pot.._ *' Sir, yield thus intemperately to the warmth of your fC age and of your temper. Restrain yourself, and "remember that moderation is the part of a wife "man, and it becomes every one to weigh the "consequences of his actions. Without any adequate "offence you destroy your fellow-citizens, and put fC even children to death. If you continue these <c excesses, the Persians may be induced to revolt ft from you. In giving you these admonitions, I do ** but fulfil the injunctions which the king your '* father repeatedly laid upon me, to warn you of "whatever I thought necessary to your welfare." Kind as were the intentions of Crœsus, he received this answer from Cambyses: "I am astonished at "your presumption in speaking to me thus, as if "you had been remarkable either for the judicious • "government of your own dominions, or for the "wife advice which you gave my father. I cannot f( forget that, instead of waiting for the attack of the "Massagetæ, you counselled him to advance and "encounter them in their own territories. By your (< misconduct you lost your own dominions, and by "your ill advice were the cause of my fathef s ruin. "But do not expect to escape wJjJtimpunityj in"deed I have long wished for an opportunity to "punish you." He thea'reagerly snatched his bow intending to pierce Crœsus, with an arrow,

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4* Snatched his bow,]—The mental derangement under which

§aul laboured, previous to the elevation of David, bears some

/ f j „v resemblance

but by an expeditious flight he escaped. Cambyses,
instantly ordered him to be seized and put to death:
but as his officers were well acquainted with their

prince's character, thej^cQncealed jQrp^fgs, thinking,

that if at any future period he should express con-
trition, they might by producing him obtain a re-
ward; but if no farther enquiries were made con~
cerning him, they might then kill him. Not long
afterwards Cambyses_expressed regret for Crœsus, /2
which whenTus attendants perceived, theyloTdshim' /Ty
that he was alive. He expressed particular satisfac-
tion at the preservation of Crœsus,, but he would

not forgive the disobedience of his servants, who , were..accordingly executed../ '' ^ f,

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XXXVII. Many things, of this kind did he per- petrate against the Persians andshis allies, whilst he stayed at Memphis: neither did R&Jiesitate to violate the tombs, and examine the bodies of the dead. . He once entered the temple.of Vujciinj and treated the shrine of that deity with much contempt. The statue of this god exceedingly resembles the Pataici which the Phœnicians place at the prow of ^ It their triremes: they who have not seen them, may , I suppose them to rdemble _jhe figure of a pigmy. . Cambyses also entered the temple of the Cabiri +4>.^.

» to which access is denied to all but the priests. He 1 ~1 "7

I 7 s"l.. , / / ■' , . A / **/ ■/■

t resemblance to the character here given of Cambyses ; and the

r. *scape of the son of Jessejfrom the javelin of the king of Israel,

. * - will admit of a comparison with that of Crœsus from the arrow of Cambyses.—T. ft

44 Cabiri..]—Concerning these see book ii. chap. H.

burned

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burned their statues, after exercising upon them his wit and raillery. These statues resemble Vifkas^ whose sons the\^abiri are supposed to be,

XXXVIII. For my own part I am satisfied that Cambyses was deprived of his reason; he would not otherwise have disturbed the sanctity of temples, or of established customs. WhoeveFhad~the opportunity of choosing for their own observance, from all the nations of the world, such laws and customs as to them seemed the best, would, I am of opinion, after the most careful examination, adhere to their own. Each nation believes that their own laws are by far the most excellent; no one, therefore, but a madman, would treat such prejudices with contempt. That all men are really thus tenacious of their own customs, appears from this, amongst other instances: Darius once sent for such of the Greeks as were dependent on his power, and asked them what reward would induce them to eat the bodies of their deceased parents j they replied that no sum could prevail on them to commit such a deed. In the presence of the same Greeks, who by an interpreter were informed of what passed, he sent also for the Callatiæ, a people of India known to eat the bodies of their parents. He asked them for what sum they would consent to burn the bodies of their parents. The Indians were disgusted at the question, and intreated him to forbear such language.—Such is the force of custom; and Pindar45 seems to me to have spoken with peculiar

45 sirdar.]—The passage in Pindar which is here referred to, '' .3 i» culiar propriety, when he observed that custom ** was the universal sovereign.

XXXIX. Whilst Cambyses was engaged in his Ægyptian expedition, the Lacedæmonians were prosecuting a war against Polycrates, the son of Æaces, who had forcibly possessed himself of Samos. He had divided it into three parts, assigning one severally to his brothers Pantagnotus and Syloson. He afterwards, having killed Pantagnotus, and banished Syloson, who was the younger, seized the whole. Whilst he was thus circumstanced, he

is preserved in the Scholia ad Nem. ix. 35. It "is this:—No/*o{ »

IStlTUI pxo-lAfo; G»<ZTOV TE Kj a9a»<*TW» am o\y.xtu:t TO fSaiQTCtTOt VtCi^

raru ys'^-—" Custom is the sovereign of mortals and of gods; with its powerful hand it regulates things the most violent."

—r.

46 Custom.]—Many writers on this subject appear not to have discriminated accurately betwixt custom and habit: the sovereign power of both must be confessed; but it will be found, on due deliberation, that custom has reference to the action, and habit to the actor. That the Athenians, the most refined and polished nation of the world, could bear to fee human sacrifices represented on their theatres, could listen with applause and with delight to the misery of Œdipus, and the madness of Orestes, is to be accounted for alone from the powerful operation of their national customs. The equally forcible sway of habit, referring to an individual, was never perhaps expressed with so much beauty as in the following lines of our favourite Shakespeare:

How use doth breed a habit m a man!

This shadowy desert, unfrequented woods,

1 better broo'k than flourishing peopled towns.

Here I can sit alone, unseen of any,

And to the nightingale's complaining notes

Tune my distresses, and record my woes. 9*.

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