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the confines of Cilicia, in the space of one hundred
and four parasangs, there are eight-and-twenty.
ftathmi. At the entrance of Cilicia are two necks
of land, both well defended ; passing beyond which
through the country, are three stathmi in the space
of fifteen parasangs and a half: Cilicia, as well as
Armenia, are terminated by the Euphrates, which
is only passable in vessels. In Armenia, and with
in the space of fifty-six parafangs and a half, there
are fifteen stathmi, in which also are guards :
through this country flow the waters of four
rivers, the passage of which is indispensable, but
can only be effected in boats. Of these the first is
the Tigris; by the same name also the second and
the third are distinguished, though they are by no
means the same, nor proceeding from the fame
source: of these latter the one rises in Armenia,
the other from amongst the Matieni. The fourth
river is called the Gyndes, which was formerly di-
vided by Cyrus/into three hundred and sixty chan-
nels. From Armenia to the country of the Mac
tieni, are four stathmi : from hence, through Cislia,
as far as the river Choaspes, there are eleven
stathmi, and a space of forty-two parafangs and a
half. The Choaspes is also to be passed in boats,

and beyond this Susa is situated. Thus it appears, or that from Sardis to Susa are one hundred and ele'yen 64 stations, or stathmi,

I SS-89. LIII.
64 One hundred and cleven.) -- According to the account given
by Herodotus in this chapter.
Vol. II,


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LIII. If this meafurement of the royal road by parafangs, be accurate, and a parafang be fupposed equal to thirty itadia, which it really is, from Sardis to the royal residence of Memnon are thirteen thousand five hundred stadia, or four hundred and fifty parafangs: allowing, therefore, one hundred and fifty ftadia to each day, the whole distance will be a journey of ninety entire days.

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· LIV. Ariftagoras was, therefore, correct in telling Cleomenes the Lacedæmonian, that it was a three months march to the residence of the Persian monarch. For the benefit of those who wish to have more satisfactory information on the subject, it may not be amiss to add the particulars of the distance betwixt Sardis and Ephesus. From the Greek lea to Sufa, the name by which the city of Memnon's is generally known, is fourteen thou




In Lydia and Phrygia are - - 20 -. - 941
In Cappadocia - - - - - - 28 - - - 104
In Cilicia - - - - - - - 3 - - - 151
In Armenia - - - - . - 15 - - • 561
In the country of the Matieni - - 4

In Cisfia - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 42
So that here must evidently be fome mistake, as instead of 111
stathmi, we have only 81; instead of 450 parafangs, only 313.
WeReling remarks on the passage, that if the numbers were ac-
curate, much advantage might be derived from knowing the
exact proportion of distance between a stathmus and a para-
fang. The same defeat is observable in the Anabasis of Xe-
nophon, which Hutchinson tries in vain to explain. T. .

65 Of Memnon.] --Strabo fays that Susa was built by Titron,


sand and forty stadia: from Ephesus to Sardis is five hundred and forty ftadia; thus three days muft. be added to the computation of the three months.

. LV. From Sparta Ariftagoras went to Athens which at this period had recovered its liberty: Aristogiton and Harmodius “, who were Gephy


the father of Memnon ; Herodotus also, in another place, calls Susa the city of Memnon ,

05 Aristogitor and Harmodius.]_To the reader of the most common classical taste the story of these Athenians must be too familiar to require any repetition in this place. An extract from a poem of Sir William Jones, in which the incident is happily introduced, being less common, may not perhaps be una acceptable. It is entitled,

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reans by descent, had put to death Hipparchus, fon of Pisistratus and brother of Hippias the tyrant. We are informed that Hipparchus had received intimation in a vision 67 of the disaster which


Quis mysteậ ensem fronde reconditum
Cantabit ? Illum civibus Harmodi
Dilecte fervatis, nec ullo
Interiture die tenebas:

Vix se refrænat fulmineus chalybs,
Mox igne cælefti emicat, exilit
Et cor reluctantis tyranni
Perforat ictibus haud remiffis.

O ter placentem Palladi victimam, &c.

The reader will perceive that Julii Melesigoni is an anagrank

of William Jones. A more particular account of thefe deliverers of their courtry may be found in Thucydides, book vi. c. 12. Pausanias, book i. and in Suidas.-T..

67. In a vision.]—The ancients imagined that a distinct dream was a certain declaration of the future, or that the event was not to be averted, but by certain expiatory ceremonies. See the Electra of Sophocles, and other places.-Larcher.

One method which the ancients had of averting the effects of disagreeable vifions, was to relate them to the Sun, who they believed had the power of turning aside any evils which the night might have menaced.T.

From Larcher's prolix note on the subject of Aristogiton and Harmodius, I extract such particulars as I think will be most interesting to an English reader.

Harmodius is reported to have inspired the tyrant Hipparchus with an unnatural passion, who loving and being beloved by Aristogiton, communicated the secret to him, and joined with him in his resolution to destroy their perfecutor. This is


afterwards befel him; though for four years after, his death the people of Athens suffered greater oppression than before. .

LVI. The particulars of the vision which Hipparchus faw are thus related : in the night preceding the festival of the Panathenæa ®, Hipparchus 1 0 .

beheld sufficiently contradicted, with respect to the attachment betwixt Harmodius and Ariftogiton, which appears to have been the true emotions of friendship only..

The courtezan Leæna, who was beloved by Harmodius, was tortured by Hippias, to make 'her discover the accomplices in the assassination of Hipparchus. Distrusting her own fortitude, she bit off her tongue, The Athenians, in honour of her memory, erected in the vestibule of the citadel a statue in bronze of a lioness without a tongue.

Thucydides seems willing to impute the action which caused the death of 'Hipparchus to a less noble motive than the love of liberty ; but the cotemporaries of the conspirators, and posterity, have rendered Harmodius and Aristogiton the merit which was their due. · Popular songs were made in their honour, one of which is preserved in Athenæus, book xy. chap. 15. It is also to be seen in the Analecta of Brunck, i. 155. This song has been im-" puted to Alcæus, but falfely, for that poet died before Hipparchus.

The descendants of the conspirators who destroyed the tyrant were maintained in the Prytaneum at the public expence.

One of the posterity of Harmodius, proud of his birth, reproached Iphicrates with the meanness of his family: "My nobility," answered Iphicrates, “ commences with me, yours terminates in you.” In the very time of the decline of Athens, the love of liberty was there so hereditary and indelible, that they erected statues to the assassins of Cæsar.

68 Panathenæa.]-On this subject I givé, from different writers, the more interesting particulars.com

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