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which he did at the suggestion of a certain Ægyp. tian who had entertained an enmity against his master. This man was a physician, and when Cyrus had once requested of Amasis the best medical advice which Ægypt could afford, for a disorder in his eyes, the king had forced him, in preference to all others, from his wife and family, and sent him into Persia. In revenge for which treatment this Ægyptian instigated Cambyses to require the daughter of Amasis, that he might either suffer affliction from the loss of his child, or by refusing to send her, provoke the resentment of

According to Pausanias, there were originally no more than three muses, whose names were Meditn, Moming and Aosdn. Their number was afterwards encreased to nine, their refidence confined to Farnafsus, and the direction or patronage of them, if these be not improper terms, afligned to Apollo. Their contest for superiority with the nine daughters of Evippe, and confequent victory, is agreeably defcribed by Ovid. Met. book v. Their order and influence seems in a great measure to have been arbitrary. The names of the books of Herodotus have been generally adopted as determinate with respect to their order. This was, however, without any assigned motive, perverted by Ausonius, in the subjoined epigram:

Clio gesta canens, tranfactis tempora reddit
Melpomene tragico proclamat mæsta boatu.
Comica lafcivo gaudet fermone Thalia.
Dulciloquos calamos Euterpe flatibus urget.
Terpsichore affectus citharis movet; imperät, auget.
Plectra gerens Erato saltat pede, carmine vultu.
Carmina Calliope libris heroica mandat
Uranie cæli motus fcrutatur et aftra.
Signat cuncta manu loquitur Polyhymnia geftu
Mentis Apollineæ vis has movet undique mufas
In medio refidens complectitur omnia Phæbus.-T.


Cambyses. Amasis both dreaded and detested the power of Persia, and was unwilling to accept, though fearful of refusing the overture. But he well knew that his daughter was meant to be not the wife but the concubine of Cambyfes, and therefore he determined on this mode of conduct : Apries, the former king, had left an only daughter: her name was Nitetis”, and she was poffeffed of much elegance and beauty. The king, having decorated her with great splendour of dress, fent her into Persia as his own child. Not long after, when Cambyses occasionally addressed her as the daughter of Amasis, “ Sir,” said she, "you are greatly mistaken, and “ Amasis has deceived you; he has adorned my pera ~ son, and sent me to you as his daughter, but Apries ” was my father, whom he, with his other rebelli "ous subjects, dethroned and put to death.” This speech and this occasion immediately prompted Cambyses in great wrath to commence hostilities

2 Nitetis.]-Cambyses had not long been king, ere he resolved upon a war with the Ægyptians, by reason of some offence taken against Amafis their king. Herodotus tells us it was because Amasis, when he desired of him one of his daughters to wife, sent him a daughter of Apries inttead of his own. But this could not be true, because Apries having been dead above forty years before, no daughter of his could be young enough to be acceptable to Cambyles. So far Prideaux ; but Larcher endeayours to reconcile the apparent improbability, by saying that there is great reason to fuppose that Apries lived a prisoner many years after Amasis dethroned him and succeeded to his power; and that there is no impoßibility in the opinion that Nitetis might, therefore, be no more than twenty or twenty-two years of age when he was sent to Cambyses.--T.

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against Ægypt.-Such is the Persian account of the story.

II. The Ægyprians claim Cambyses as their own, by asserting that this incident did not happen to him, but to Cyrus, from whom, and from this daughter of Apries, they say he was born +. This, however, is certainly not true. The Ægyptians are of all mankind the best conversant with the Persian manners, and they must have known that a natural child could never succeed to the throne of Persia, whilst a legitimate one was alive. And it was equally certain that Cambyfes was not born of an Ægyptian woman, but was the son of Caffandane, the daughter of Pharnaspe, of the race of the Achæmenides. This story, therefore, was invented by the Ægyptians, that they might from this pretende claim a connection with the house of Cyrus.

III. Another story also is asserted, which to me * But to Cyrus)- They speak with more probability, who say it was Cyrus, and not Cambyfes, to whom this daughter of Apries was fent ---Prid'eaux.

4 They say be was born.] -Polyænus, in his Stratagemata, res lates the affair in this manner :- Niteris, who was in reality the daughter of Apries, cohabited a long time with Cyrus as the daughter of Amáfis. After having many children by Cyrusa he disclosed to him who the really was; for though Amasis was dead, the wished to revenge herlelf on his fon Pfammenitus. Cyrus acceded to her wisties, but died in the midst of his preparations for an Ægyptian war. This, Cambyses was perfuaded by his mother to undertake, and revenged on the Ægyprian's the cause of the family of Aprięs.--.


seems improbable. They say that a Persian lady once visiting the wives of Cyrus, law ftanding near their mother the children of Cassandane, whom she complimented in high terms on their superior excellence of form and person. “Me," replied Cal. fandane, “who am the mother of these children, “ Cyrus neglects and despises, all his kindness is s bestowed on this Ægyptian female.” This she said from resentment against Nitetis. They add that Cambyses, her eldest son, instantly exclaimed, “Mo“ther, as soon as I am a man, I will effect the utter “ destruction of Ægypts". These words, from a prince who was then only ten years of age, surprized and delighted the women ; and as soon as he be


s I will effect the utter destruction of Ægypt.)- Literally, I will turn Ægypt upside down.

M. Larcher enumerates, from Athenzus, the various and de. fructive wars which had originated on account of women; he adds, what a number of illuftrious families had, from a similar cause, been utterly 'extinguished. The impression of this idea, added · to the vexations which he had himself experienced in domestic

life, probably extorted from our great poet, Milton, the following energetic lines;

Oh why did God,
Creator wise, that peopled highest heaven
With spirits masculine, create at last
This novelty on earth, this fair defect
Of nature, and not fill the world at once
With men as angels, without feminine,
Or find some other way to generate
Mankind : This mischief had not then befall'n,
And more that shall befall, innumerable
Disturbances on earth through female snares.-T.

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came a man, and succeeded to the throne, he remembered the incident, and commenced hostilities against Ægypt.

· IV. He had another inducement to this under-
taking. Among the auxiliaries of Amasis was a
man named Phanes, a native of Halicarnassus, and
greatly distinguished by his mental as
litary accomplishments. This person being, for I
know not what reason, incensed against Amasis,
fled in a vessel from Ægypt, to have a conference
with Cambyses. As he possessed great influence
among the auxiliaries, and was perfectly acquainted
with the affairs of Ægypt, Amasis ordered him to
be rigorously pursued, and for this purpose equip-
ped, under the care of the most faithful of his
eunuchs, a three-banked galley. The pursuit was
successful, and Phanes was taken in Lydia, but he
was not caaried back to Ægypt, for he circum-
vented his guards, and by making them drunk
effected his escape. He Aed instantly to Persia ;
Cambyses was then meditating the expedition against
Ægypt, but was deterred by the difficulty of march-
ing an army over the deserts, where so little water
was to be procured. Phanes explained to the king
all the concerns of Amasis; and to obviate the
above difficulty, advised him to send and ask of the
king of the Arabs a safe passage through his terri-

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V. This is indeed the only avenue by which Ægypt can possibly be entered. The whole coun


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