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XXXIV. Of this attack the Naxians had not the remotest expectation; but they took the advantage of the intelligence imparted to them, and provided against a fiege, by removing their valuables from the fields to the town, and by laying up a store of water and provisions, and, lastly, by repairing their walls; they were thus prepared against every emergence, whilst the Persians, pasling over from Chios to Naxos, found the place in a perfect state of defence. Having wasted four months in the attack, and exhausted all the pecuniary resources which themselves had brought, together with what Ariftagoras supplied, they still found that much was wanting to accomplish their purpofe ; they erected, therefore, a fort for the Naxian exiles, and returned to the continent greatly disappointed.

XXXV.. Ariftagoras thus found himself unable to fulfil his engagements with Artaphernes; and he was also, to his great vexation, called upon to defray 'the expence of the expedition: he saw, moreover, in the person of Megabates, an accuser, and he feared that their ill success should be imputed to him, and made a pretence for depriving him of his authority at Miletus ; all these motives induced him to meditate a revolt. Whilst he was in this perplexity, a messenger arrived from Histiæus, at Sula, who brought with him an express command to revolt; the particulars of which were impressed in


legible characters upon his fcull 38. Hiftiæus was desirous to communicate his intentions to Ariftagoras, but as the ways were strictly guarded, he could devise no other method; he therefore took one of the most faithful of his slaves, and inscribed what we have mentioned upon his scull, being first shaved; he detained the man till his hair was again grown, when he fent him to Miletus, desiring him to be as expeditious as possible; and simply requesting Ariftagoras to examine his scull, he discovered the characters which commanded him to commence a revolt. To this measure Histiæus was induced, by the vexation

38 Upon his scull.]—Many curious contrivances are on re. cord, of which the ancients availed themselves to convey secret intelligence. Ovid mentions and example of a letter inscribed on a person's back:

Caveat hoc custos, pro charta, conscia tergum

Præbeat, inque suo corpore verba ferat. The circumstance here mentioned by Herodotus is told at greater length by Aulus Gellius, who says that Hiftiæus chose one of his domestics for this purpose who had fore eyes, to cure which he told him that his hair must be shaved, and his head scarified; having done which, he wrote what he intended on the man's head, and then sent him to Ariftagoras, who, he told him, would effect his cure by Mhaving his head a second time.

Josephus mentions a variety of stratagems to effect this pur· pofe ; fome were fent in coffins, during the Jewish war, to con

vey intelligence ; others crept out of places disguised like dogs; some have conveyed their intentions in various articles of food : and in bishop Wilkin's Mercury, where a number of examples of this nature are collected, mention is made of a person, who rolled up a letter in a wax candle, bidding the messenger inform the party that was to receive it, that the candle would give him light for his business.--7.


he experienced from his captivity at Sufa. He flattered himself, that as soon as Ariftagoras was in action he should be able to escape to the sea-coast; but whilst every thing remained quiet at Miletus, he had no prospect of effecting his return.

XXXVI. With these views Histiæus dispatched his emiffary; the message he delivered to Aristagoras was alike grateful and seasonable, who accordingly signified to his party, that his own opinions were confirmed by the commands of Hiftiæus : his intentions to commence a revolt met with the general approbation of the assembly, He catæus the historian being the only one who diffented. To dissuade them from any act of hostility against the Persian monarch, he enumerated the various nations which Darius had subdued, and the prodigious power he possessed: when he found these arguments ineffectual, he advised them to let their feet take immediate possession of the sea, as the only means by which they might expect success. He confessed that the resources of the Milesians were but few; but he suggested the idea, that if they would make a seizure of the wealth deposited by Cræsus the Lydian in the Branchidian temple-3% they might promise themselves these two advanta.

39 Branchidian temple.]-For an account of the temple of Branchidæ, fee vol. i. p. 47. “ If Ariftagoras," says Larcher, “ had followed the prudent counsel of Hecatæus, he would have had an increase of power against the Persian, and deprived Xerxes of the opportanity of pillaging this temple, and employing its riches against Greece."--T.


ges; they would be able to make themselves male ters of the sea, and by thus using these riches themselves would prevent their being plundered by the enemy.—That these riches were of very confiderable value, I have explained in my first book. This advice, however, was as ill received, although the determination to revolt was fixed and universal : it was agreed, that one of their party should fail to the army, which, on its return from Naxos, had disembarked at Myus 4C, with the view of seizing the persons of the officers.

XXXVII. Iatragoras was the person employed in this business; who fo far succeeded, that he captured Oliatus the Mylasfensian, son of Ibanolis, His. tiæus of Termene 4', son of Tymnis, Coës the son of Erxander, to whom Darius had given Mitylene, 576 together with Ariftagoras the Cymæan, son of HeTaclides, with many others. Ariftagoras thus commenced a regular revolt, full of indignation against


40 Mjus,]~This city was given to Themistocles, to furnish his table with fish, with which the bay of Myus formerly abounded: the bay, in process of time, became a fresh-water lake, and produced such fwarms of gnats, that the inhabitants deserted the place, and were afterwards incorporated with the .Milesians. Chandler, who visited this place, complains that the old nuisance of Myus tormented him and his companions exceedingly, and that towards the evening the inside of their tent was made quite black by the number of gnats which in felted them.oł.

41 Termene.] Larcher remarks on this word, that no such place exilted in Caria as Termere, which is the common reading: it certainly ought to be Termene.-T.

, Darius.

Darius. To engage the Milesians to act in concert with him, he established among them a republican form of government. He adopted a similar conduct with respect to the rest of Ionia; and to excite a general prejudice in his favour, he expelled the tyrants from some places, and he also sent back those who had been taken in the vessels which served against Naxos, to the cities to which they severally belonged.

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XXXVIII. The inhabitants of Mitylene had no sooner got-Coës into their hands, than they put him to death, by stoning him. The Cymeans sent their tyrant back again; and the generality of those who had poffessed the supreme authority being driven into exile, an equal form of government was established : this being accomplished, Aristagoras the Milesian directed magistrates 42, elected by the people, to be established in the different cities; after se which he himself failed in a trireme to Lacedæmon, convinced of the necessity of procuring some powerful allies.

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XXXIX. Anaxandrides, son of Leontes, did not then sit upon the throne of Sparta ; he was deceased, and his son Cleomenes had succeeded him, rather on account of his family than his virtues : Anaxan

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42 Magifrates. The original is ogasnyos, which, as M. Larcher remarks, does not in this place mean the leader of an army, but a magistrate, corresponding with the archons of Athens, &c.-T. Vol. II.



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