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ing each a single horn. Besides these animals, they have such as are elsewhere found, except the stag and the boar 178, which are never seen in Africa. They have also three distinct species of mice, fome of which are called dipodes 199, others are called zegeries, which in the African tongue has the same meaning with the Greek word for hills. The other fpecies is called the echines. There are moreover to be seen a kind of weazel produced in Silphium, and very much like that of Tartessus. The above are all the animals amongst the African Nomades, which my most diligent researches have enabled me to discover.

CXCIII. Next to the Maxyes are the Zaueces, whose women guide the chariots of war.

198 Boar.]_This animal must have been carried to Africa since the time of Herodotus, for it is now found there : according to Shaw, it is the chief food and prey of the lion, against which it has sometimes been known to defend itself with fo much bravery, that the victory has inclined to neither fide, the carcases of them both having been found lying the one by the other, torn and mangled to pieces.-Shaw.

199 Dipodes.]—Shaw is of opinion that this is the jerboa of Barbary. “ That remarkable disproportion,” observes this writer, “ betwixt the fore and hinder legs of the jerboa, or SiTys, though I never saw them run, but only stand or reft themselves upon the latter, may induce us to take it for one of the dowodes, or two-footed rats which Herodotus and other writers describe as the inhabitants of these countries, particularly (78 EiaQıs) of the province of Silphium.” Accordingly Mr. Pennant has set down the reve dites of Theophraftus' and Ælian among the fyonyma of the jerboa.-Hift. of An. p. 4270 N° 291.

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M E L POMENE 353 CXCIV. The people next in order are the Zygantes, amongst whom a great abundance of honey is found, the produce of their bees; but of this they lay a great deal more is made by the natives 200. They all stain their bodies with vermilion, and feed upon monkies, with which animal their mountains abound. .. . . .. .' :

CXCV. According to the Carthaginians, we next meet with an island called. Cyranis, two hun dred stadia in length. It is of a trifling breadth, but the communication with the continent is eafy, and it abounds with olives and vines. Here is a lake from which the young women of the island draw up gold dust 201 with bụnches of feathers bez smeared with pitch. For the truth of this I will not answer, relating merely what I have been told: To me it seems the more probable, after having seen at Zacynthus 202 pitch drawn from the bottom p.: ..

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200 Made by the natives.] I do not see,” says Reise on this passage, “ how men can possibly make honey. They may collect, clarify, and prepare it by various processes for ufe, but the bees must first have made it.”

I confess I see no such great difficulty in the above. There were various kinds of honey, honey of þees, honey of the palm, and honey of sugar, not to mention honey of grapes; all the ļaft of which might be made by the industry, of man...See Lucani,

Quique bibunt tenera dulces ab arundine fuccos. T. . · See Shaw's Travels, p. 339.

201 Gold duft. - See a minute account of this in Achilles Tatius.-T.

202 Zacynthus. ]-The modern name of this place is Zante VOL. II.

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of the water. At this place are a number of lakes, the largest of which is seventy feet in circumfefence, and of the depth of two orgyiæ. Into this water they let down a pole, at the end of which is a bunch of myrtle; the pitch attaches itself to the myrtle, and is thus procured. It has a bituminous smell, but is in other respects preferable to that of Pieria203. The pitch is then thrown into a trench dug for the purpose by the side of the lake; and when a fufficient quantity has been obtained, they put it up in calks. Whatever falls into the lake

Its tar springs, to use the words of Chandler, are fill a natural curiosity deserving notice.

The car is produced in a small valley about two hours from the town, by the sea, and encompassed with mountains, except toward the bay, in which are a couple of rocky islets. The spring which is most diftin&t and apt for inspection, rises on the farther side near the foot of the hill. The well is circular, and four or five feet in diameter. A shining film, like oil mixed with scum, swims on the top: you remove this with a bough, and see the tar at the bottom, three or four feet beneath the surface, working up, it is said, out of a fissure in the rock; the bubbles fwelling gradually to the fize of a large cannon-ball, when they burst, and the sides leisurely finking, new ones suc. ceed, increase, and in turn fubfide. The water is limpid, and runs off with a smart current: the ground near is quaggy, and will shake beneath the feet, but is cultivated. We filled some veffels with tar, by letting it trickle into them from the boughs which we immersed, and this is the method used to gather it from time to time into pits, where it is hardened by the fun, to

be barrelled when the quantity is safficient. The odour reaches . a considerable way. See Chandler's Travels. '

203 That of Pieria.] This was highly esteemed. Didymus says that the ancients considered that as the best which came from Mount Ida; and next to this, the tar which came from Pieria. Pliny says the same.--Larcher. . ..

passes paffes under ground, and is again seen in the fea, at the distance of four stadia from the lake. Thus what is related of this island contiguous to Africa, seems both consistent and probable.

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. CXCVI. We have the same authority of the Carthaginians to affirm, that beyond the columns of Hercules there is a country inhabited by a people with whom they have had commercial intercourse 204. It is their custom, on arriving amongst thern, to unload their vessels, and dispose their goods along the thore. This done, they again embark, and make a great smoke from on board. The natives, seeing this, come down immediately to the shore, and placing a quantity of gold by

204 Commercial intercourse.]—It must be mentioned to the honour of the western Moors, that they still continue to carry on a trade with some barbarous nations bordering upon the river Niger, without feeing the persons they trade with, or without having once broke through that original charter of commerce whịch from time immemorial has been settled between them,

The method is this: at a certain time of the year, in the winter, if I am not mistaken, they make this journey in a numerous caravan, carrying along with them coral and glass beads, bracelets of horn, knives, scissars, and such like trinkets. When they arrive at the place appointed, which is on such a day of the moon, they find in the evening several different heaps of gold dult lying at a small distance from each other, against which the Moors place so many of their trinkets as they judge will be taken in exchange for them. If the Nigritians the next morning approve of the bargain, they take up the trinkets and leave the gold dust, or else make some deduction from the latter. In this manner they transact their exchange without seeing one another, or without the least instance of dishonefty or perfidiousness on evher side. --Shaw. A a 2

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way of exchange for the merchandize, retire. · The Carthaginians then land: a fecond time, and if they think the gold sequivalent, they take it and depart; if not, they again go on board, their vessels. The inhabitants return and add more gold, till the crews are satisfied. The whole is conducted with the Itrictest integrity, for neither will the one touch the gold till they have left an adequate Value - in mer: chandize, nor will the other remove the goods till the Carthaginians have taken away the gold. . Cocin

: je.. CXCVII. Such are the people of Africa whose names I am able to afcertain; of whom the greater part cared - but little for the king of the Medes, neither do they now, Speaking with all the precision I am able, the country I have been describing is inhabited by four nations only: of these two are natives and two strangers. The 'natives are the Africans and Æthiopians; one of whom polleis the northern the other the southern parts of Africa. The-strangers are the Phænicians and the Greeks.', 'a's ") 115.7.192 SS: iis b on.. 27":"ite visende

17 275 tis!.. Bla biet i jos u . H ova curt..

CXCyul. If we except the district of Cinyps, which bears the name of the river flowing through it; Áfricat in goodness of toil cannot, I think, be compared either to Asia or Europe. Cinýps is totally unlike the rest of Africa, but is equal to any country in the world for its corn. It is of a black foil, abounding in springs, and never troubled with drought. It rains in this part of Africa, but the rains, though violent, are never injurious. The pro

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