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the asphodel shrub, secured with rushes. Such are the manners of these people.

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CXCI. The Ausenses, on the western part of the river Triton, border on those Africans who cultivate the earth and have houses, they are called Maxyes; these people suffer their hair to grow on the right side of the head, but not on the left; they stain their bodies with vermillion, and pretend to be descended from the Trojans. This region, and indeed all the more western parts of Africa, is much more woody, and infested with wild beasts, than where the African Nomades reside ; for the abode of these latter, advancing eastward, is low and sandy. From hence westward, where those inhabit who till the ground; it is mountainous, full of wood, and abounding with wild beasts ; here are found ferpents of an enormous size, lions, elephants, bears 138, afps, and asses with horns. Here also are the Cynocephali, as well as the Acephali 189, who,

if 193 Bears.]-Pliny pretends that Africa does not produce · bears, although he gives us the annals of Rome, testifying that

in the consulship of M. Piso, and M. Messala, Domitius Ænobarbus gave during his ædileship public games, in which were an hundred Numidian bears.

Lipfius afirms, that the beasts produced in the games of Ænobarbus, were lions, which is the animal also meant by the Lybistis ursa of Virgil: “ The first time,” says he, « that the Romans. faw lions, they did not call them lions, but bears." Virgil mentions lions by its appropriate name in an hundred places ; Shaw also enumerates bears amongst the animals which he met in Africa. Larcher. 189 Cynocephali as well as the Acephali.]-Herodotus mentions

. a nation

if the Africans may be credited, have their eyes in their breasts ; they have, moreover, men and


a nation of this name in Lybia, and speaks of them as a race of
men with the heads of dogs. Hard by, in the neighbourhood of
this people, he places the Acephali, men with no heads at all;
to whom, out of humanity, and to obviate some very natural
distresses, he gives eyes in the breast; but he seems to have for-
got mouth and ears, and makes no mention of a nose. Both
thefe and the Cynocephali were denominated from their place
of residence, and from their worship; the one from Cahen.
Caph-El, the other from Ac-Caph-El, each of which ap-
pellations is of the same import, the right noble or sacred rock
of the sun.-Bryant.
See also the speech of Othello in Shakespeare:

Wherein of antars valt and desarts idle,
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch

It was my hint to speak, such was my process;
And of the cannibals that each other eat,
The Anthropophagi; and men whose beads
Did grow beneath their shoulders.

The Cynocephali, whom the Africans considered as mes with the heads of dogs, were a species of baboons, remarkble * for their boldness and ferocity. As to the Acephali, St. Augaf

tin assures us, that he had seen them himself of both sexes. That holy father would have done well to have confidered, that in pretending to be eye-witness of such a fable he threw a stain on the veracity of his other works. If there really be a nation in Africa which appear to be without a head, I can give no better account of the phænomenon, than by copying the ingenious author of Philofophic Researches concerning the Ameficans.

« There is,” says he, « in Canibar, a race of favages who have hardly any neck, and whose shoulders reach up to the ears. This monstrous appearance is artificial, and to give it to

women who are wild and favage; and many ferocious animals whose existence cannot be disput

od 190.

' CXCII. Of the animals above mentioned, none are found amongst the African Nomades; they have however pygargi '9", goats, buffaloes, and asses, not


their children, they pat enormous weights upon their heads, so as to make the vertebræ of the neck enter (if we may so fay) the channel-bone (clavicule). These barbarians, from a diftance, seem to have their mouth in the breast, and might well enough, in ignorant or enthusiastic travellers, serve to revive the fable of the Acephali, or men without heads.”—The above note is from Larcher; who also adds the following remark upon the preceding note, which I have given from Mr. Bryant.

Mr. Bryant, imagining that these people called themselves Acephali, decomposes the word, which is purely Greek, and makes it come from the Ægyptian Ac-Caph-El, which he in, terprets “the sacred rock of the fun.” The same author, with as much reason, pretends that Cynocephali comes from CahenCaph-El, to which he assigns a fimilar interpretation : here, to me at least, there seems a vast deal of erudition entirely thrown away.

In the fifth century, the name of Acephali was given to a confiderable faction of the Monopbysitės, or Eutychians, who by the submission of Mongus were deprived of their leader.-T.

Apollonius Rhodius calls these people musxuves, or half dogs; and it is not improbable but that the circumstance of their living entirely by the produce of the chace, might give rise to the fable of their having the heads of dogs.-T.

19° Cannot be disputed.]-We may, I think, fairly infer from this expression, that Herodotus gave no credit to the stories of the Cynocephali and Acephali.-T.

198 Pygargi.]-Aristotle classes the pygargus amongst the birds of prey; but as Herodotus in this place speaks only of


of that species which have horns, but a particular kind which never drink. They have also oryxes 192 of the size of an ox, whose horns are used by the Phænicians to make the sides of their citharæ. In

quadrupeds, it is probable that this also was one. Hardouin makes it a species of goat. Thus far Larcher. Ælian also ranks it amongst the quadrupeds, and speaks of its being a very timid animal.-See also Juvenal, Sat. xi. 138.

Sumine cum magno, lepus atque aper, et pygargus. See also Deuteronomy, chap. xiv. verse 5. “ The hart and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.”

It may probably be the gazelle, a species of antelope.-T.

192 Oryxes.]—Pliny describes this animal as having but one horn; Oppian, who had seen it, says the contrary. Aristotle classes it with the animals having but one horn. Bochart thinks it was the aram, a fpecies of gazelle; but Oppian describes the oryx as a very fierce animal.-The above is from Larcher. - The oryx is mentioned by Juvenal, Sat. xi. 140.

Et Gætulus oryx:

And upon which line the Scholiast has this remark:

Oryx animal minus quem bubalus quem Mauri uncem vocant, cujus pellis ad citoras proficit fcuta Maurorum minora. From the line of Juvenal above mentioned it appears that they were eaten at Rome, but they were also introduced as a ferocious animal in the amphitheatre. See Martial, xiii. 95.

Matutinarum non ultima præda ferarum

Sævus oryx, conftat quot mihi mute canum.

That it was an animal well known and very common in Africa, is most certain ; but, unless it be what Pennant describes under the name of the leucoryx, or white antelope, I confefs I know not what name to give it.-T.

this region likewise there are bassaria '93, hyenæ, porcupines, wild boars, dietyes "94, thoes 195, panthers, buryes 190, land crocodiles 197 three cubits long, re. sembling lizards, ostriches, and small serpents, hav

193 Basaria.)- Ælian makes no mention of this animal, at least under this name, Larcher interprets it foxes, and refers the reader to the article Bascucis, in Hesychius, which we learn was the name which the people of Cyrene gave to the fox. -T.

194 Dictyes.]-I confess myself totally unable to find out what animal is here meant.

195 Thoes. ]-Larcher is of opinion that this is the beast which we call a jack-all, which he thinks is derived from the Arabian word chat all. He believes that the idea of the jackall’s being the lion's provider is universally credited in this country; but this is not true. The science of natural history, is too well and too fuccessfully cultivated amongst us to admit of such an error, except with the most ignorant. I subjoin what Shaw says upon this subject.

The black cat (scyah ghush) and the jackall, are generally supposed to find out provision or prey for the lion, and are therefore called the lion's provider; yet it may very much be doubted, whether there is any such friendly intercourse between them. In the night, indeed, when all the beasts of the forest do move, these, as well as others, are prowling after sustenance; and when the sun ariseth, and the lion getteth himself away to his den, both the black cat and the jackall have been often found gnawing such carcases as the lion is supposed to have fed upon the night before. This, and the promiscuous noise which I have heard the jackall particularly make with the lion, are the only circumstances I am acquainted with in favour of this opinion. T. .

,196 Boryes. Of this animal I can find no account in any writer, ancient or modern. as5 197 Land crocodiles,] cr Keoxoneidos Xepoulog, so called in contradistinction from the river crocodile, which by way of eminence was called Keoxodunos only.

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