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the Æthiopians, and returning homeward arrived at length at Thebes, after losing a considerable number of his men. From Thebes he proceeded -yq Ms rophjs, siwn.whence he permitted the Greeks to embark.—Such was the termination of the Æthiopian expedition, «^ . ^

XXVI. The troops who were dispatched against ^ Jp the Ammonians left Thebes with guides, and penetrated, as it should seem, as far as Oasis. This place is distant from Thebes about a seven days , ;1 journey over the sands, and is said to be inhabited"" "T by Samians, of the Æschryonian tribe. The country is called in Greek, "The happy Iflands." The army is reported to have proceeded thus-far; but what afterwards became of them it is impossible to know, except from the Ammonians, or those whom the Ammonians have instructed on this head. It is certain that they never arrived among the Ammonians, and, that they never returned'1. The Ammord- ans affirm, that as they were marching forwards from Oasis through the sands, they halted at some place of middle distance, for the purpose of taking repast, which whilst they were doing, a strong south wind

3' Never returned.]—The route of the army makes it plain that the guides, who detested the Persians, led them astray amidst the deserts; for they should have departed from the lake Mareotis to this temple, or from the environs of Memphis. The Egyptians, intending the destruction of their enemies, led them from Thebes to the great Oasis, three days journey from Abydus; and having brought them into the vast solitudes of Lybia, they no doubt abandoned them in the night, and delivered them over to death.-—Havary*

/ . , j / ■ -arose,

fU- Thilia.

arose, and overwhelmed them beneath a mpun-r tain of sand'% so that they were seen no more.—r Such, as the Ammonians relate, was the fate of this army.


XXVII. Soon after the return of Cambyfes-to Memphis, the godLApis/ appeared,-called by the Greeks Epaphus Upon this occasion the Ægyptiansclothed themselves in their richest apparel, and made great rejoicings. Cambyscs took notice of this, and imagined it was done on account of his late unfortunate projects. He ordered, therefore, the magistrates of Memphis to attend him; and he asked them why they had done nothing of this kind when ! he was formerly at Memphis, andjhad only made

/ 5* Mountain of'sand,,]—What happens at present in perform-

2/7 t^1'S Journev' proves the event to be very credible. Tra

1 vellers, departing from the fertile valley lying under the tropic, 2 (i march seven days before they come to the first town in ÆthioV P>a- They find their way in the day-time by looking at marks, »s ja,nd. at night by observing the stars. The sand-hills they had I *~\ observed on the preceding journey having often been carxy . • ried away by the winds, deceive the guides; and if they t*

N, wander the least out of the road, the camels, having passed five tr' \ or six days without drinking, sink under their burden, and die: the men are not long before they submit to the same fate, and sometimes, out of a great number, not a single traveller escapes; at others the burning winds from the south raise vortexes of dust, which soffocate man and beast, and the next caravan fees the ground strewed witn bodies totally parched up.—Savarj.

35 Epapbus.]—Epaphus was the son of lo, the daughter of


Inachus. The Greeks pretended he was the fame person as the Apis; this the-Ægpptians «i$$$4 wjtolo.»Sland asserted that Epaphus was posterior to Apis by many centuries.

Vol. II. D rejoicings


rejoicings now that he\had returned with the loss of so many of his troopsSsTJiey told him, that tbejyt^. j&&£xJ* had appeared to them, which after a long

i*t■**■-/i-A-t,.--*' . absence

.* "Jiff" ** *

3*.Their deity.]-- ft is probable that Apis was not always eemsidered as a deity; perhaps they regarded him as a symbol of Osiris, and it was from this that the Egyptians were induced to pay him veneration. Others assert confidently that he was the fame as Osiris; and some have said, that Osiris having been killed by Typhon, Isis inclosed his limbs in an heifer made of wood. Apis was sacred to the moon, as was the bull Mnevis to the fun. Others supposed, that both were sacred to Osiris, who is the fame with the fun. When he died there was an universal mourning in Ægypt. They sought for another, and having found him, the mourning ended. The priests conducted him to Nilopolis, where they kept him forty days. They afterwards removed him in a magnificent vessel to Memphis, where he had an apartment ornamented with gold. During the ^forty days above mentioned the women only were suffered to see him\ They stood round him, and lifting up their garments, discovered to him what modesty forbids us to name. Afterwards the sight of the god was forbiddenjherji.

'Every "year they brought him a heifer, which had also certain marks. According to the sacred books, he was only permitted to live a stipulated time; when this came he was drowned in a sacred fountain.—Larcber.

A few other particulars concerning this Apis may not be unacceptable to an English reader.

The homage paid him was not confined to Ægypt; many illustrious conquerors and princes of foreign nations, Alexander, Titus, and Adrian, bowed themselves before him. Larcher fays that he was considered as sacred to the moon; but Porphyry expressly fays, that he was sacred to both sun and moon. The following passage is from Plutarch: "The priests affirm that the moon sheds a generative light, with which should a cow wanting the bull be struck, Ihe conceives Apisi who bears the sign of


absence it was his custom to do} and that when this
happened, it was customary for all the Ægyptians
to hold a solemn festival. Cambyses disbelieved
what they told him, and condemned them to death,
as guilty of falsehood.

XXVIII. As soon as they were executed, he
sent for the priests, from whom he received the
fame answer. "If," said he, " any deity has shown
"himself familiarly in Ægypt, I must see and
** know him." He then commanded them to
bring Apis before him, which they prepared to do. *> .
J IK - T.his Apis, or^pjjjhijs>lis.ilicxaj£ of IL caw-whidi- -

£ can have no more young. The Ægyptians fay, 1 4 that on this occasion the cowjsjfruck^jdthJigkU-^i. t f lit 7 n'no> ^rom which she conceives and brings forth ^ d, / Apis. The young one so produced, and thus named, is known by certain marks: The skin is black, .3 3 f-f « but on its forehead is a white star of a triangular s

that planet." Strabo fays, that he was brought out from his apartment to gratify the curiosity of strangers, and might alwas be seen through a window. Pliny relates with great solem^^^nity^Aat he refused food from the hand of Germanicus, who died soorTafter; 'and one ancient historian asserts, that during the seven days when the birth of Apis was celebrated, crocodiles forgot their natural ferocity, and became tame. -^sc^j// The bishop of Avranches, M. Huet, endeavoured to prove* that Apis was a symbol of the patriarch Joseph

tTSTBeehgenerally1 allowed, that Osiris was reverenced in the homage paid to Apis. Osiris introduced agriculture, in which the utility of the bull is obvious; and this appears to be the most rational explanation that can be given of this part of Ægyptian superstition. See Savary, Pococke, &c.—T.

D 2 form.


yi./' /.«^/L /, ,H ,.^f

J. form. It has the figure of an eagle on the back,

'Athe tail" is divided, and under the tongue'6 it ill / juv-li *has an insect like a beetle. /' ^ \L>

L- XXIX. When the priests conducted Apis to his

x presence, Cambyses was transported" with rage. He ii * * drew his dagger, and endeavouring to stab him

U 0 U> in the belly, wounded him in the thigh; then
turning to the priests with an insulting smile,
Ct Wretches," he exclaimed, "think ye that gods are
"formed of flesh and blood, and thus susceptible of
"wounds? This, indeed, is a deity worthy of Ægyp-
"tians: but you shall find that I am hot to be mock-
"ed with impunity." He then called the proper
officers, and commanded the priests to be scourged:
he directed also that whatever Ægyptian was found
celebrating this festival should . be put to death.
The priests were thus punished, and no further
solemnities observed. Apis himself languished and
.died in the temple, from the wound of his thigh,

35 The fail.]—The Scholiast of Ptolemy fays, but I know
not ch what authority, that the tail of the bull encreafed or di-
minished according to the age of the moon.—Larcber.

St XJnclfr the tongue]—In all the copies of Herodotus, it is h rfi r/Kus-cy, upon the tongue; but it is plain from Pliny and Eufebius that it ought to be We, under. The former explains What it was, Nodus sub lingua quern eantharum appellant* "a 'knot under the tongue, which they call cantharus, or the beetle." viii. 46. The spot on the forehead is also changed by the commentators from quadrangular to triangular. Plihy mentions also a mark like a crescent on the right side, and is silent about the "eagle, The beetle was considered as an emblem of die fun.—T'.


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