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- CLXVII. At this time Aryandes, taking compassion on Pheretime, delivered to her command all the land and sea forces of Ægypt. To Amasis, a Maraphian, he entrusted the conduct of the army; and Badre, a Pafargadian 161 by birth, had the di- 10 12 rection of the fleet. Before however they proceeded ? on any expedition, a herald was dispatched to Barce, demanding the name of the person who had affaffinated Arcesilaus. The Barceans replied, that they were equally concerned, for he had repeatedly injured them all. Having received this answer, Aryandes permitted his forces to proceed with so se most Pheretime.

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CLXVIII. This was the pretence with Aryandes for commencing hoftilities; but I am rather inclined to think that he had the subjection of the Africans in view. The nations of Africa are many and various; few of them had ever submitted to Darius, and most of them held him in contempt, Beginning from Ægypt, the Africans are to be enumerated in the order following.--The first are the Adyrmachidæ, whole manners are in every respect Ægyptian; their dress African. On each leg their wives wear a ring of brass. They suffer their hair to grow; if they catch any feas upon their bodies, they first bite and then throw them away. They are the only people of Africa who do this,

18! Pasargadian.)– There was a city in Perfia called Pasargada, which doubtless gave its name to the nation of Pasar, gades. The place is now, in the Arabian tongue, called Databegend.-T.

It is also peculiar to them to present their daughters to the king just before their marriage 162, who may enjoy the persons of such as are agreeable to him. The Adyrmachidæ occupy the country between Ægypt and the port of Pleunos. .

CLXIX, Next to these are the Giligammæ, i

who dwell towards the west as far as the island of - Aphrodisias. In the midst of this region is the 166 leier island of Platea, which the Cyreneans built. The

harbour of Menelaus and Aziris, possessed also by the Cyrencans, is upon the continent. Silphium 163

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162 Before their marriage:]=A play of Beaumont and Fletcher is founded upon the idea of this obscene and unnatural custom. The following note is by Mr. Theobald upon the « Custom of the Country.Beaumont and Fletch. 1778.

The custom on which a main part of the plot of this comedy is built, prevailed at one time, as Bayle tells us, in Italy, till it was put down by a prudent and truly pious cardinal. It is likewise generally imagined to have obtained in Scotland for a long time ; and the received opinion hath hitherto been, that Eugenius, the third king of Scotland, who began his reign A. D. 535, ordained that the lord or master should have the first night's lodging with every woman married to his tenant or hondsman. This obscene ordinance is supposed to have been abrogated by Malcolm the third, who began his reign A. D. 1061, about five years before the Norman Çonquest, having lasted in force somewhat above five hundred years. -See Blount in his Law Dictionary, under the word Mercheta. Another commentator remarks, that Sir David Dalrymple denies the existence of this custom in Scotland.-- Judge Blackstone is of opinion that this custom never prevailed in England, but that it certainly did in Scotland.

163 Silphium.]-Either M. Larcher or myfelf must be grossly mistaken in the interpretation of this passage, « The plant


begins where these terminate, and is continued from Platea to the mouth of the Syrtes 164. The man


Silphium,” says his version, “ begins in this place to be found, and is continued,” &c. This in my opinion neither agrees with the context, nor is in itself at all probable. In various authors mention is made of the Silphii, and reference is made by them to this particular passage of Herodotus.-T.

164 Syrtes. 1-The Great Syrtes must be here meant, which is in the neighbourhood of Barce, and nearer Ægypt than the Small Syrtes.-Larcher. .

There were the Greater and the Lesser Syrtes, and both deemed very formidable to navigators. Their nature has never been better described than in the following lines from Lucan, which I give the reader in Rowe's version.

When nature's hand the first formation try'd,
When seas from lands she did at first divide, .
The Syrts, not quite of sea nor land béreft,
A mingled mass uncertain still she left;
For nor the land with sea is quite o'erspread,
Nor sink the waters deep their oozy bed,
Nor earth defends its shore, nor lifts aloft its head;
The scite with neither, and with each complies,
Doubtful and inacceflible it lies;
Or 'tis a sea with shallows bank'd around,
Or 'tis a broken land with waters drown's :
Here fhores advanc'd o'er Neptune's rule we find,
And there an inland ocean lags behind;
Thus nature's purpose, by herself destroy'd,
Is afeless to herself, and unemploy'd,
And part of her creation still is void.
Perhaps, when first the world and time began,
Her swelling tides and plenteous waters ran;
But long confining on the burning zone,
The sinking seas have felt the neighbouring fun;
Still by degrees we see how they decay,
And scarce resist the thirsty god of day.


ners of these people nearly resemble those of their
neighbours.. .

CLXX. From the west, and immediately next to the Giligammæ, are the Asbystæ, They are above Cyrene, but have no communication with the sea coasts, which are occupied by the Cyreneans : They are beyond all the Africans remarkable for their use of chariots drawn by four horses; and in most respects they imitate the manners of the Cyreneans., in


2013 . CLXXI. On the western borders of this people dwell the Aulchiiæ; their district commences above Barce, and is continued to the sea, near the Euesperides, The Cabales, an inconsiderable nation, inhabit towards the centre of the Auschisæ, and extend themselves to the sea coast near Tauchira, a town belonging to Barce. The Cabales have the same customs as the people beyond Cy- ko rene.

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CLXXII. The powerful nation of the Nafas mones border on the Auschisa towards the west,

This people during the summer season leave their , cattle on the sea coast, and go up the country to a place called Augila to gather dates. Upon this

Perhaps, in distant ages 'twill be found,
When future suns have rụn the burning round,
These Syrts shall all be dry and solid ground:
Small are the depths their scanty waves retain,
And earth grows daily on the yielding main,

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fpot the palms are equally numerous, large, and fruitful: they also hunt for locusts 105, which having dried in the sun, they reduce them to a powder, and eat mixed with milk. Each person is allowed to have feveral wives, with whom they cohabit in the manner of the Massagetæ, first fixing a staff in the earth before their tent. When the Nafamgnes marry, the bride on the first night permits every one of the guests to enjoy her person, each of whom makes her a present brought with him for the purpose. Their mode of divination and of taking an oath is this: they place their hands on the tombs 166 of those who have been most eminent for their integrity and virtue, and swear by their names,

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165 Locusts.]--The circumstance of locusts being dried and kept for provision, I have before mentioned: the following apposite pasiage having since occurred to me from Niebuhr, I Think proper to insert it.

On vendit dans tous les marchés des sauterelles à vil prix: çar elles etoient fi prodigieusement repandues dans la plaine près de Jerim, qu'on pouvoit les prendres à pleines mains. Nous vimes un paysan qui en avoit rempli un sac, et qui alloit les fecher pour sa provision d’hyver.

166 On the tombs.]—The following fingular remark from Niebuhr seems particularly applicable in this place.

Un marchand de la Mecque me fit sur ses saints une réflection, qui me surprit dans la bouche d'un Mahométan. « Il faut toujours à la populace," me dit-il, « un objet visible qu'elle puisse honorer et craindre. C'est ainsi qu'à la Mecque tous les sermens' se font au nom de Mahomet, au lieu qu'ondevroit s'adresser à Dieu. A' Molcha je ne me fierois pas a un homme qui affirmeroit une chose en prenant Dieu à témoin; mais je pourrois compter plutôt sur la foi de celui qui jureroit par" le nom de Schaedeli, dont la mosquée et le tombeau sont sous ses yeux.


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