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reneans, afflicted by their recent calamities, fent to Delphi, desiring to know what system of life would most effectually secure their tranquillity. The Pythian in reply recommended them to procure from '. Mantinea "57, in Arcadia, some one to compose their disturbances. Accordingly, at the request of the Cyreneans, the Mantincans sent them Demonax, a man who enjoyed the universal esteem of his countrymen. Arriving at Cyrene, his first care was to make himself acquainted with their affairs; he then divided the people into three distinct tribes :the first comprehended the Thereans and their. neighbours; the second the Peloponnesians and Cretans; the third all the inhabitants of the islands. He alligned a certain portion of land, with some diftinct privileges, to Battus; but all the other advantages which the kings had before arrogated to themselves, he gave to the power of the people.

- CLXII. In this situation things remained during the life of Battus : but in the time of his son an ambitious struggle for power was the occasion of great disturbances. Arcesilaus, son of the lame Battus, by Pheretime, refused to submit to the regulations of Demonax the Mantinean, and demanded to, bę restored to the dignity of his ancestors. A great tumult was excited, but the consequence was, that Arcesilaus was compelled to take refuge at Samos, whilst his mother Pheretime fled to Salamis

757 Mantinea.)-This place became celebrated by the death of Epaminondas, tħe great Theban general, who was here Nain.

in Cyprus: Euelthon had at this time the govern.
Inent of Salaris: the same person who dedicated
åt Delphi a moft beautiful censer now deposited in.
the Corinthian treasury. To him Pheretime-made
application, intreating him to lead an army against
Cyrene; for the purpose of restoring her and her
fon. He made her many presents, but refused to
asist her with an army. Pheretime accepted his.
liberality with thanks, but endeavoured to convince
him that his assisting her with forces would be
much more honourable. Upon her persevering in
this request, after every present she received, Euel-
thon was at length induced to send her a gold
spindle, and a distaff with wool; observing, that for
a woman this was a more suitable present than an

CLXIII. In the mean time Arcesilaus was indefatigable at Samos; by promising a division of lands, he assembled a numerous army: he then ailed to Delphi; to make enquiry concerning the event of his return. The Pythian made him this answer: “ To four Batti '58, and to as many of “ the name of Arcesilaus, Apollo has granted the * dominion of Cyrene. Beyond these eight genea. * rations the deity forbids even the attempt to

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158 To four. Batti.]— According to the Scholiaft on Pindar, the Battiades reigned at Cyrene for the space of two hundred years. Battus, son of the last of these, endeavoured to assume the government, but the Cyreneans drove him from their country, and he retired to the Hesperides, where he finished his days.-Larcher,

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“ reign: to you it is recommended to return, and « live tranquilly at home. If you happen to find « a furnace filled with earthen vessels, do not suffer « them to be baked, but throw them into the air: or if you set fire to the furnace, beware of entering

a place surrounded by water. This injunction, “ if you disregard, you will perish yourself, as will « also a very beautiful bull.”

CLXIV. The Pythian made this reply to Arcefilaus : he however returned to Cyrene with the forces he had raised at Samos; and having recovered his authority, thought no more of the oracle. He proceeded to institute a perfecution against those who taking up arms against him had compelled him to fly. Some of these fought and found a refuge in exile, others were taken into custody and fent to Cyprus, to undergo che punishment of death. These the Cnidians delivered, for they touched at their island in their passage, and they were afterwards transported to Thera: a number of them Aled to a large tower, the property of an individual named Aglomachus, but Arcesilaus destroyed them, tower and all, by fire. No sooner had he perpetrated this deed than he remembered the declaration of the oracle, which forbade him to set fire to a furnace filled with earthen vessels : fearing therefore to suffer for what he had done, he retired from Cyrene, which place he considered as furrounded by water. He had married a relation, the daughter of Alazir, king of Barce, to him therefore he went; but upon his appearing in public, the Barceans, in


conjunction with some Cyrenean fugitives, put him
to death, together with Alazir his father-in-law.
Such was the fate of Arcesilaus, he having, de-
signedly or from accident, violated the injunctions of
the oracle.

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-99.1 CLXV. Whilst the son was thus hastening his

destiny at Barce, Pheretime '59 his mother enjoyed 39 at Cyrene the supreme authority; and amongst

other regal acts presided in the senate. But as soon 361 as she received intelligence of the death of Arcesi.

laus, she fought refuge in Ægypt. Her fon had some claims upon the liberality of Cambyses, fon of Cyrus; he had delivered Cyrene into his power, and paid him tribute. On her arrival in Ægypt, she presented herself before Aryandes in the cha racter of a suppliant, and befought him to revenge her cause, pretending that her son had lost his life · merely on account of his attachment to the Medes.

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". CLXVI. This Aryandes had been appointed
præfect of Ægypt by Cambyses; but afterwards,
presuming to rival Darius, he was by him put to
death. He had heard, and indeed he had seen, that
Darius was desirous to leave fome monument of
himself, which should exceed all the efforts of his
predecessors. He thought proper to attempt some-
what similar, but it cost him his life. Darius had

isg Pheretime. |--See this story well related in the Stratagemata of Polyænus, book viii. c. 47.-T. .

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issued a coin 16 of the very purest gold : the præc fect of Ægypt issued one of the purest silver, and called it an Aryandic. It may ftill be seen, and is much admired for its purity. Darius hearing of this, condemned him to death, pretending that he had rebelled against him.

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ceptinian; and there during the cent on

160 Darius had issued a coin. 1" About the same time seem to have been coincd those famous pieces of gold called Darics, which by reason of their fineness were for several ages prefer: red before all other coin throughout the east: for we are told that the author of this coin was not Darius Hystaspes, as some have imagined, but a more ancient Darius. But there is no ancientes Darius mentioned to have reigned in the east, ex, cepting only this Darius, whom the scripture calls Darius the Median; and therefore it is most likely he was the author of this coin, and that during the two years that he reigned at Babylon, while Cyrus was absent on his Syrian, Ægyptian, and other expeditions, he caused it to be made there out of the vast quantity of gold which had been brought thither into the treasury; from hence it became dispersed all over the east, and also into Greece, where it was of great reputation : according to Dr. Besnard, it weighed two grains more than one of our guineas, but the fineness added much more to its value; for it was in a manner all of pure gold, having none, or at least very little, alloy in it; and therefore may be well reckoned, as the proportion of gold and silver now stands with us, to be worth twentyfive shillings of our money. In those parts of the scripture which were written after the Babylonish captivity, these pieces are mentioned by the name of Adarkonim ; and in the Talmudists, by the name of Darkoneth, both from the Greek Azqti201, Darics. . And it is to be obferved, that all those pieces of gold which were afterwards coined of the same weight and ' value by the succeeding kings, not only of the Persian but also of the Macedonian race, were all called Darics, from the Darius who was the first author of them. And there were either whole Darics or half Dasics, as with us there are guineas and half-guineas.”-Prideaux.


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