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accuse the victim of being a wicked man. Having disgraced him, they proceed to the election of another, giving him, whilst yet alive, their commands. This fame people, whenever it thunders or lightens, throw their weapons into the air, as if menacing their god; and they seriously believe that there is no other deity.

. XCV. This Zamolxis, as I have been informed by those Greeks who inhabit the Hellespont and the Euxine, was hiinself a man, and formerly lived at Samos, in the service of Pythagoras, son of Mne- 48% sarchus; having obtained his liberty, with considerable wealth, he returned to his country. Here he ?"} found the Thracians distinguished equally by their profligacy and their ignorance; whilst he himself had been accustomed to the Ionian mode of life, and to manners more polished than those of Thrace; he had also been connected with Pythagoras, one of the most celebrated philosophers of Greece. He was therefore induced to build a large mansion, to which he invited the most eminent of his fellow-citizens: he took the opportunity of the festive hour to assure them, that neither himself, his guests, nor any of their descendants, should ever die, but should be removed to a place where they'were to remain in the perpetual enjoyment of every blessing. After faying this, and conducting himself accordingly, he constructed a subterranean edifice : when it was compleated, he withdrew himself from the fight of his countrymen, and resided for three years beneath the earth.-During this period, the Thracians re



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gretted his lofs, and lamented him as dead. In the
fourth year he again appeared amongst them, and
by this artifice gave the appearance of probability
to what he had before aflerted.

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i XCVI. To this story of the subterraneous apart-
'ment I do not give much credit; though I pretend
not to dispute it; I am, however, very certain that
Zamolxis must have lived many years before Pytha-
goras: whether, therefore, he was a man, or the

deity of the Getæ, enough has been said concerning
h ihin. These Getæ, using the ceremonies I have

described, after submitting themselves to the Per-
sians under Darius, followed his army. Bratis

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XCVII. Darius, when he arrived at the Ister, passed the river with his army; he then commanded the Ionians to break down the bridge, and to follow him with all the men of their fleet. When they were about to comply with his orders, Coes, 370 son of Erxander, and leader of the Mytelenians, after requesting permission of the king to deliver his sentiments, addressed him as follows: ... "

“ As you are going, Sir, to attack a country, “ which, if report may be believed, is without cities “ and entirely uncultivated, suffer the bridge to « continue as it is, under the care of those who to constructed it:-By means of this our return will « be secured, whether we find the Scythians, and " succeed against them according to our wishes, or « whether they elude our endeavours to discover “ them. I am not at all apprehensive that the

" Scythians

Scythians will overcome us; but I think that if “ we do not meet them, we shall suffer from " our ignorance of the country. It may be said, « perhaps, that I speak from selfish considerations, « and that I am desirous of being left behind; but “ my real motive is a regard for your interest, « whom at all events I am determined to follow."

With this counsel Darius was greatly delighted. and thus replied :-“ My Lesbian friend, when I ~ ihall return fafe and fortunate from this expedi« tion, I beg that I may fee you, and I will not « fail amply to reward you, for your excellent " advice."

XCVIII. After this speech, the king took a cord, upon which he tied fixty knots to5, then


195 Sixty knots. ]-- Larcher observes that this mode of notation proves extreme tupidity on the part of the Persians. It". is certain, that the science of arithmetic was first brought to perfection in Greece, but when or where it was first introduced is entirely uncertain ; I mhould be inclined to imagine, that Tome knowledge of numbers would be found in regions the most barbarous, and amongst human beings the most ignorant, had I. not now before me an account of some American nations, who have no term in their language to express a greater number than three, and even this they call by the uncouth and tedious name of patarrarorincourfac. In the Odyssey, when it is said that. Proteus will count his herd of sea-calves, the expression used is Till Tracollas, he will reckon them by fives, which has been remarked, as being probably a relick of a mode of counting praccifed in some remote age, when five was the greateit numeral. To count the fingers of one hand, was the first arithmetical effort: to carry on the account through the other hand was a refinepent, and required attention and recollection,

M, Goguet

sending for the Ionian chiefs, he thus addreffed them:

“ Men of lonia, I have thought proper to : “ change my original determination concerning “ this bridge: do you take this cord, and ob“ ferve what I require; from the time of my “ departure against Scythia, do not fail to « untie every day one of these knots. If they « shall be all loosened before you see me again,

M. Goguet thinks, that in all numerical calculations pebbles were first used : inoofw, to calculate, comes from Ingos, a little stone, and the word calculation from calculi, pebbles. This is probably true; but between counting by the five fingers and standing in need of pebbles to continue a calculation, there must have been many intervening steps of improvement. A more complicated mode of counting by the firgers was also used by the ancients, in which they reckoned as far as 100 on the left hand, by different postures of the fingers; the next hundred was counted on the right hand, and so on, according to some authors, as far as 9000. In allusion to this, Juvenal says of Neftor, Atque suos jam dextrâ computat annos.

Sat. X. 249. and an old lady is mentioned by Nicarchus, an Anthologic poet, who made Nestor seem young, having returned to the left hand again :

Xego nein
Γηρας αριθμεισθαι δεύτερον αρξαμενη. -

Arthclog. I. i. . This, however, must be an extravagant hyperbole, as it would make her above gooo years old, or there is some error in the modern accounts. There is a tract of Bede's on this subject which I have not seen ; it is often cited. Macrobius and Pliny tell us, that the statues of Janus were fo formed, as to mark the number of days in the year by the position of his fingers, in Numa's time 355, after Cæfar’s correction 365. -Satı:rn. i. 9. and Net. Hift. xxxiv. 7.-T. ::

w you

« you are at liberty to return to your country; « but in the mean time it is my desire that you «preserve and defend this bridge, by which means “s you will effectually oblige me.” As soon as Darius had spoken, he proceeded on his march.

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XCIX. That part of Thrace 106 which stretches to the sea, has Scythia immediately contiguous : where Thrace ends Scythia begins, through which the Ifter paffes, commencing at the south-east, and emptying itself into the Euxine. It shall be my business to describe that part of Scythia which is continued from the mouth of the Ister to the sea-coast. Ancient Scythia extends from the Ilter westward, as far as the city Carcinitis. The mountainous ? 10. country above this place, in the same direction, as

far as what is called the Trachean Chersonele, is. · possessed by the people of Taurus ; this place is

situate near the sea to the east. Scythia, like Attica, is in two parts limited by the sea, westward and to the east. The people of Taurus are circumstanced with respect to Scythia, as any other nation would be with respect to Attica, who, instead of Athenians, should inhabit the Sunian' promontory, stretching from the district of Thonicus, as far as Anaphlyftus. Such, comparing small things with

106 That part of Thrace. ]-This chapter will, doubtless, ap. pear perplexed on a first and casual view, but whoever will be at the trouble to examine M. d'Anville's excellent maps, illuftrative of ancient geography, will in a moment find every difficulty respecting the situation of the places here described effectually. removed.-T.


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