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have seen it, I shall here describe it. This vessel which is in Scythia, is of the thickness of six digits, and capable of containing fix hundred amphoræ. The natives say that it was made of the points of arrows, for that Ariantas 9, one of their kings, being desirous to ascertain the number of the Scythians, commanded each of his subjects, on pain of death, to bring him the point of an arrow: by these means so prodigious a quantity were collected, that this vessel was composed from them. It was left by the prince as a monument of the fact, and by him consecrated at Exampæus.-- This is what I have heard of the populousness of Scythia.

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LXXXII. This country has nothing remarkable except its rivers, which are equally large and numerous. If besides these and its vast and extensive plains, it possesses any thing worthy of admiration, it is an impression which they shew of the foot of Hercules". This is upon a rock, two


90 Ariantas.) I have now a remarkable instance before me, how dangerous it is to take upon trust what many learned men put down upon the authority of ancient writers. Hoffman, whose Lexicon is a prodigy of learning and of industry, speaking of this Ariantas, says, “ that he made each of his subjects bring him every year the point of an arrow." For the truth of this he refers the reader to Herodotus, and the passage before us. Hea rodotus says no such thing.-T.

95 Foot of Hercules... The length of the foot of Hercules was ascertained by that of the stadium at Olympia, which was said to have been measured by bim to the length of 600 of his own feet : hence Pythagoras estimated the size of Hercules by' the rule of proportion; and hence too the proverb,. ex pede Here : Vol. II,


cubits in size, but resembling the footstep of a man; it is near the river Tyras.

LXXXIII. I Thall now return to the subject froin which I originally digressed.—Darius preparing to make an expedition against Scythia, dispatched emissaries different ways, commanding some of his dependants to raise a supply of infantry, others to prepare à feet, and others to throw a bridge over the Thracian Bofphorus. Artabanus, 303 - son of Hystaspes, and brother of Darius, endea

voured to persuade the prince from his purpose, urging with great wisdom the indigence of Scythia; nor did he desist till he found all his arguments ineffectual. Darius having completed his preparations, advanced from Susa with his army,

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LXXXIV. Upon this occasion a Persian, whose name was bazus, and who had three fons in the army, asked permission of the king to detain one of them. The king replied, as to a friend, that the petition was very modest, “ and that he would « leave him all the three.” (Ebazus was greatly delighted, and considered his three sons as exempted from the service: but the king commanded his guards to put the three young men to death; and thus were the three sons of bazus left, deprived of life.

LXXXV. Darius marched from Susa to where

culem, a more modern substitution for the ancient one of
oruxwe neovla.See Aul. Gell. l. i. and Erasmus's Adagia, in
which the proverb of ex.pede Herculem has no place.-T.



the bridge had been thrown over the Bofphorus at Chalcedon. Here he embarked and set sail for the : Cyanean islands, which, if the Greeks may be believed, formerly floated 92. Here, sitting in the temple”, he cast his eyes over the Euxine, which of all feas most deserves admiration. Its length is eleven thousand one hundred stadia ; its breadth, where it is greatest, is three thousand two hundred. The breadth of the entrance is four ftadia ; the length of the neck, which is called the Bosphorus, where the bridge had been erected, is about one

92 Formerly floated.]The Cyanean rocks were at fo little distance one from the other, that viewed remotely they appeare ed to touch. This optic illusion probably gave place to the fable, and the fable gained credit from the dangers encoun. vered on this sea.-Larcher.

See a description of these rocks in Apollonius Rhodius: I give it from the version of Fawkes.

When hence your destin'd voyage you pursue,
Two rocks will rise, tremendous to the view,
Just in the entrance of the watery waite,
Which never mortal yet in safety paft.
Not firmly fix'd, for oft, with hideous shock,
Adverse they meet, and rock encounters rock.

The boiling billows dalh their airy brow, · Loud thundering round the ragged shore below. The circumstance of their floating is also mentioned by Valea rius Flaccus.

Errantesque per altum

T. 93 In the temple.]-Jupiter was invoked in this temple, under the name of Urius, because this deity was supposed favourable to navigation, spos signifying a favourable wind. And never could there be more occasion for his assistance than in a sea remarkably tempestuous.-Larcher. ...

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hundred and twenty ftadia. The Bosphorus is connected with the Propontis 9+, which Rowing into the Hellefpont 95, is five hundred ftadia in breadth, and four hundred in length. The Hellespont itself, in its narrowest part, where it enters the Ægean - fea, is forty ftadia long, and seven wide.

94 Prodontis. ] ---Between the Bosphorus and the Hellespont, the shores of Europe and Alia, receding on either side, inclose the sea of Marmara, which was known to the ancients by the denomination of Propontis. The navigation from the islave of the Bosphorus to the entrance of the Hellefpont, is about one hundred and twenty miles. Those who steer their westward course through the middle of the Propontis may at once desery the high lands of Thrace and Bithynia, and never lose fight of the lofty summit of mount Olympus, covered with eternal snows. They leave on the left a deep gulf, at the bottom of which Nicomedia was scated, the imperial residence of Diocletian ; and they pass the small islands of Cyzicus and Pro. connesus, before they cast anchor at Gallipoli, where the sea which separates Afia from Europe is again contracted into a narrow channel.--Gibbon...

95 Hellefpont.]-The geographers, who, with the most skilful accuracy, have surveyed the form and extent of the Hellespont, aslign about sixty miles for the winding course, and about threc miles for the ordinary breadth of these celebrated streights. But the narrowest part of the channel is found to the forthward of the old Turkish castles, between the cities of Celtus and Abydos. It was here that the adventurous Leander braved the passage of the flood for the possession of his mistress : It was here likewise, in a place where the distance between the opposite banks cannot exceed five hundred paces, that Xerxes composed a fi upendous bridge of boats for the purpose of transporting into Europe an hundred and seventy myriads of Barbarians. A fea contracted within such narrow limits may seem but ill to deserve the epithet of broad, which Homer as well as Orpheus has frequently bestowed on the Hellefpont.-Gibbon.


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LXXXVI. The exact menfuration of these feas is thus determined; in a long day 96 a ship will de fail the space of feventy thousand orgyæ, and sixty thousand by night. From the entrance of the 125 Euxine to Phasis, which is the extreme length of this fea, is a voyage of nine days and eight nights, which is equal to eleven hundred and ten thousand orgyæ, or eleven thousand one hundred stadia. The broadest part of this sea, which is from Sindica” to Themiscyra, on the river Thermodon, is a v voyage of three days and two nights, which is equivalent to three thousand three hundred stadia,

or three hundred and thirty thousand orgyx. The
, Pontus, the Bosphorus, and the Hellespont, were

thus severally measured by me, and circumstanced
as I have already described. The Palus Mæotis
Aows into the Euxine, which in extent almost
equals it, and which is justly called the mother of
the Euxine.


LXXXVII. When Darius had taken a survey of the Euxine, he failed back again to the bridge

96 In a long day. ]That is, a ship in a long day would fail eighty miles by day, and seventy miles by night. See Wessel. ing's notes on this passage.-T.

97 Sindica.)–The river Indus was often called the Şindus. There were people of this name and family in Thrace. Some would alter it to Sindicon, but both terms are of the same purport. Herodotus speaks of a regio Sindica, upon the Pontus Euxinus, opposite to the river Thermodon. This fome would alter to Sindica, but both terms are of the same amount. The Ind or Indus of the east is at this day called the Sind; and was çalled so in the time of Pliny.-Bryant.

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