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and they add, that at his return he informed his
employer, that all the people of Greece were oc-
cupied in scientific pursuits, except the Lacedæ-
monians; but they alone endeavoured to perfect
themselves in discreet and wife conversation. This
however, is a tale of Grecian invention; I am
convinced that Anacharsis was killed in the man-
ner which has been described, and that he owed
his destruction to the practice of foreign customs
and Grecian manners,
"10 "

, i

· LXXVIII. Not many years afterwards, Scyles, the son of Aripithes, experienced a similar fortune, Aripithes, king of Scythia, amongst many other children, had this son Scyles by a woman of Istria, who taught him the language and sciences of Greece. It happened that Aripithes was treasonably put to death by Spargapithes, king of the Agathyrsi. He was succeeded in his dominions by this Scyles, who married one of his father's wives, whose name was

Opæa. Opæa was a native of Scythia, and had a ;** fon nained Oricus by her former husband. When di Scyles ascended the Scythian throne, he was exceede

ingly averfe to the manners of his country, and very partial to those of Greece, to which he had been accustomed from his childhood. As often therefore as he conducted the Scythian forces to the city of the Borysthenites, who affirm that they are descended from the Milesians, he left his army before the town, and entering into the place secured the gates. He then threw aside his Scythian dress, and affumed the habit of Greece. In this, without


guards or attendants, it was his custom to parade through the public square, having the caution to place guards at the gates, that no one of his countrymen might discover him. He not only thus Ihewed his partiality to the cultoms of Greece, but he also facrificed to the gods in the Grecian manner. After continuing in the city for the space of a month, and sometimes for more, he would resume his Scythian dress, and depart. This he frequently repeated, having built a palace in this town, and married an inhabitant of the place.

LXXIX. It seemed however ordained *7 that his end should be unfortunate, which accordingly happened. It was his desire to be initiated into the mysteries of..Bacchus; and he was already about to take some of the sacred utensils in his hands, when the following prodigy appeared to him. I have before mentioned the palace which he had ia the city of the Borysthenites; it was a very large

87 It seemed however ordained. ]-This idea, which occurs repeatedly in the more ancient writers, is most beautifully expressed in the Persæ of Æschylus ; which I give the reader in the animated version of Potter.

- For when misfortune's fraudful hand
- Prepares to pour the vengeance of the sky,

What mortal shall her force withstand,
What rapid speed th' impending fury fly?

Gentle at first, with flattering smiles,

She spreads her soft enchanting wiles;
So to her toils allures her destin'd prey,

Whence man ne'er breaks unhurt away.


Á and magnificent structure, and the front of it was in

decorated with sphinxes and griffins of white mar- , ? ble: the lightning 98 of heaven descended upon :it, and it was totally consumed. Scyles/neverthe- tak lefs persevered in what he had undertaken. The Scythians reproach the Greeks on account of their

Bacchanalian festivals, and assert it to be contrary to in icle Teason to suppose that any deity should prompt ---.. men to acts of madness. When the initiation of

Scyles was completed, one of the Borysthenites 234
discovered to the Scythians what he had done
“ You Scythians,” says he, « censure us on ac-
« count of our Bacchanalian rites, when we yield
« to the impulse of the deity. This fame deity 24
“ has taken possession of your sovereign, he is
« now obedient in his service, and under the in-
« fluence of his power. If ye disbelieve my words,
« you have only to follow me, and have ocular
« proof that what I say is true.” The principal
Scythians accordingly followed him, and by a fe-
cret avenue were by him conducted to the citadel,
When they beheld Scyles approach with his thiasus,

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88 The lightning.)-The ancients believed that lightning never fell but by the immediate interposition of the gods; and what. ever thing or place was struck by it, was ever after deemed sacred, and supposed to have been consecrated by the deity to himself. There were at Rome, as we learn from Cicero de Di. vinatione, certain books called “ Libri Fulgurales,” expressly treating on this subject. In Ammianus Marcellinus this expression occurs, “ contacta loca nec intueri nec calcari debere pronuntiant libri fulgurales.” The Greeks placed an urn over the place where the lightning fell: the Romans had a fimilar observance.


and 'in every other respect acting the Bacchanal, they deemed the matter of most calamitous importance, and returning informed the army of all that they had feen. : .

LXXX. As soon as Scyles returned an insurrection was excited against him; and his brother Octomasades, whose mother was the daughter of Tereus, was promoted to the throne. Scyles having learned the particulars and the motives of this revolt, fed into Thrace; against which place, as soon as he was informed of this event, Octoma. sades advanced with an army. The Thracians met him at the Ifter; when they were upon the point of engaging, Sitalces sent an herald to Octo, mafades, with this message: “ A contest betwixt us " would be absurd, for you are the lon of my “ filter. My brother is in your power; if you “ will deliver him to me, I will give up Scyles to < you, thus we shall mutually avoid all danger.” As the brother of Sitalces had taken refuge with Octomafades, the above overtures effected a peace. The Scythian king surrendered up his uncle, and received the person of his brother. Sitaices immediately withdrew his army, taking with him his brother; but on that very day Octomafades des prived Scyles of his head. Thus tenacious are the

Scythians of their national customs, and such the "fate of those who endeavour to introduce foreign

ceremonies amongst them,


LXXXI. On the populoufness of Scythia. I am not able to speak with decision; they have been reprefented to me by some as a numerous people, whilst otliers have informed me, that of real Scythians there are but few. I shall relate however what has fallen within my own observation. ? Betwixt the Borysthenes and the Hypanis. there is a place called Exampæus: to this. I have before made fome, allusion, when speaking of a fountain which it contained, whose waters, were io exceedingly bitter as to render the Hypanis, into which it fows, perfectly impalatable. In this place is a vessel of brass, fix times larger than that which is to be seen in the entrance of Pontus; con: fecrated there by Pausanias 89 the son of Cleombrotus. For the benefit of those who may not

.89 Confecrated there by Pausarias.)-Nymphis of Heraclea relates, in the sixteenth book of his history of his country; that Pausanias, who vanquished Mardonius at Platea, in violation of the laws of Sparta, and yielding to his pride, consecrated, whilft he was near Byzantium, a goblet of brass to those gods whose statues may be seen at the mouth of the Euxine, which goblet may still be seen. Vanity and insolence had made him so far forget himself, that he presumed to specify in the infcription, that it was he himself who had confecrated it: “ Paufanias of Lacedæmon, son of Cleombrotùs, and of the ancient race of Hercules, general of Greece, has confecrated this goblet to Neptune, as a monument of his valour.”-Athenæus.

What would have been the indignation of this or any hiftorian of that period, if he could have foreseen the bafe and Servile-inscriptions dedicated in after-times, in almost all parts of the habitable world, to the Cæsars and their vile descendants ? Many of these have been preserved, and are an outrage against all decency.-I.

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