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observances are thefe : Of their divinities 66, Vesta
is without competition the first, then Jupiter, and LV
Tellus, whom they believe to be the wife of Jupi-
ter; next to these are Apollo, the Coelestial Venus,
Hercules, and Mars. . All the Scythians revere
these as deīties, but the Royal Scythians pay divine
rites also to Neptune. In the Scythian tongue jam
Vesta is called Tabiti; Jupiter, and as I think very
properly, Paprus * ; Tellus, Apia; Apollo, CEtofy
rus ; the Cæleftial Venus, Artimpasa ; and Nep: 23
tune, Thamimafadas. "Amongft all these deities
Mars is the only one to whom they think it
proper to erect altars, Thrines, and temples. "

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LX. Their mode of facrifice in every place ap-
pointed for the purpose is precisely the same, it is
this:-The victim is secured with a rope, by its
two fore feet; the person who offers the facri-
3. 86 Of their divinities.] It is not unworthy the attention of
the English reader, that Herodotus is the first author who makes
any mention of the religion of the Scythians. In most writings
on the fubject of ancient mythology, Vella is placed next to
Juno, whose fifter she was generally supposed to be : Montfau.
con also remarks, that the figures which remain of Vesta have
a great resemblance to those of Juno. With respect to this
goddess, the ancients were much divided in opinion ; Euripides
and Dionysius Halicarnassenfis, agree in calling her Tellus.-
Ovid feems also to have had this in his mind when he said
“ Stat vi terra suâ, vi stændo Vesta vocatur.” Most of the dit.
ficulties •on this subject may be solved, by fuppofing' there were
two Veitas.-T.

* Papæus)-r Pappæus, fignifying father'; as being, ac-
cording to Homer, πατηρ ανδρων τε θεων τε, the fre of gods and men,

fice 7, standing behind, throws the animal down by means of this rope; as it falls he invokes the name of the divinity to whom the sacrifice is offered ; he then fastens a cord round the neck of the victim, and strangles it, by winding the cord round a stick; all this is done without fire, without lim bations, or without any of the ceremonies in use amongst us. When the beast is strangled, the facrificer takes off its skin, and prepares to dress it. :

L.XI. As Scythia is very barren of wood, they have the following contrivance to dress the Aeth of the victim :-Having Aayed the animal, they strip the Aesh from the bones, and if they have them at hand, they throw it into certain pots made in Scy. thia, and resembling the Lesbian caldrons, though somewhat larger ; under these a fire is made with the bones 68. If these pots cannot be procured, they


B7 Who offers the sacrifice.]—Montfaucon, in his account of the gods of the Scythians, apparently gives a translation of this passage, except that he says “ the sacrificing priest, after having turned aside part of his veil :” Herodotus says no such thing, nor does any writer on this subject which I have had the opportunity of consulting.-T.

68° Fire is made with the bones. -Montfaucon remarks on this passage, that he does not see how this could be done. Resources equally extraordinary seem to be applied in the eastern countries, where there is a great scarcity of fuel. In Persia it appears from Sir John Chardin they burn heath; in Arabia they burn Cow-dung; and according to Dr. Russel they burn parings of fruit, and such like things. The prophet Ezekiel was ordered to bake his food with human dang. See Ezekiel, chap. iv.

enclose the Aesh with a certain quantity of water it the paunch of the victim, and make a fire with the bones as before. The bones being very infiamma. ble, and the paunch without difficulty made to contain the flesh separated from the bone, the ox iś thus made to drefs itself, which is also the case with the other victims. When the whole is ready, he who facrifices throws with fome solemnity before him the entrails, and the more choice pieces. They facrifice different animals, but horses in particular.

· LXII. Such are the facrifices and ceremonies observed with respect to their other deities; but to the god Mars the particular ritės which are paid are these-In every district they construct a temple to this divinity of this kind; bundles of small wood are heaped together, to the length of three stadia, and quite as broad, but not so high, the top is a regular fquarę, three of the sides are steep and broken, but the fourth is an inclined plane forming

12. ^ Thou shalt bake it with dung that cometh out of man.” Voltaire, i. his remarks on this passage, pretends to understand that the prophet was to eat the dung with his food." Comme il n'est point d'usage de manger de telles confitures sur fon pain, la plupart des hommes trouvent ces commandemens indignés de la Majesté divin.” The passage alluded to admits of no such inference : but it may be concluded, that the burning of bones for the purpose of fuel was. not a very unusual circumstance, from another passage in Ezekiel.. See chap. xxiv. 5. “ Take also the choice of the flock, and burn the bones under it, and make it boil well.”


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the ascent. To this place are every year brought one hundred and fifty waggons full of these bundles of wood, to repair the structure, which the severity of the climate is apt to destroy. Upon the summit of such a pile each Scythian tribe places an ancient scymetara, which is considered as the shrine of Mars, and is annually honoured by the sacrifice of sheep and horses ; indeed to this deity more victims are offered than to all the other divinities. It is their custom also to sacrifice every hundredth captive, but in a different manner from their other victims. Having poured libations upon their heads, they cut their throats into a vessel placed for the purpose. With this, carried to the fummit of the pile, they, besmear the above-mentioned fcymetar. Whilst this is doing above, the following ceremony is observed below:-From these human victims they cut off the right arms close to the shoulder, and throw them up into the air. This

Ancient scymetar.)-It was natural enough that the Scythians should adore with peculiar devotion the god of war; but as they were incapable of forming either an abitract idea, or a corporeal representation, they worshipped their tutelar deity under the symbol of an iron cimeter. Gibbon.

In addition to this iron cymetar or cimeter, Lucian tells us that the Scythians worshipped Zamolxis as a god. See also Ammianus Marcellinus, xxx. 2. Nec templum apud eos vifitur, aut delubrum, ne tugurium quidem culmo tectum cerni usquam potest, fed gladius Barbarico ritu humi figitur nudus, eumque et Martem regionem quas circumcircant præfulem verecundius colunt.

Larcher, who quotes the above paffage from Am. Mar. tells us from Varro, that anciently at Rome the point of a spear was considered as a representation of Mars. .. "

ceremony ceremony being performed on each victim severally, they depart: the arms remain where they happen to fall, the bodies elsewhere.

7! LXIII. The above is a description of their facrifices. Swine are never used for this purpose, as they will not suffer them to be kept in their coun: try.

· LXIV. Their militarý customs are these :Every Scythian drinks the blood of the first per son he flays; the heads of all the enemies who fall by his hand in battle he presents to his king : this offering entitles him to a share of the plunder, which he could not otherwise claim. Their mode of stripping the skin from the head 70 is this

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.,75 The skin from the head.]+To cut off the heads of enemies Aain in battle, feems no unnatural action amongst a race of fierce and warlike barbarians. The art of scalping the headwas probably introduced to avoid the trouble and fatigue of . carrying these sanguinary trophies to any considerable distance, Many incidents which are here related of the Scythians, will necessarily remind the reader of what is told of the native Americans. The following war song, from Boffu's Travels through Louisiana, places the resemblance in a striking point of view :-( I go to war to revenge the death of my brothers - I mall kill-1 shall exterminate--I Mall burn my enemies I fhall bring away slaves I shall devour their hearts, dry their ficth, drink their blood I shall tear off their scalps, and make cups off their sculls." :

The quickness and dexterity with which the Indians perform the horrid operation of scalping, is too well known to require any destription. This coincidence of manners is very striking,


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