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tivers ; but if one be compared with another, the
preference must be given to the Nile, into which
ho stream nor fountain enters. The reason why in
the two opposite seasons of the year the Danube is
uniformly the same, seems to me to be this: - In
the winter it is at its full natural height, or perhaps
somewhat more, at which feason there is in the re-
gions through which it passes abundance of snow, but
very little rain; but in the summer all this snow is
diffolved, and emptied into the Danube, whichitos
gether with frequent and leavy rains greatly aug*
ment it. But in proportion' as thề body of its
waters is thus multiplied, are the exhalations of the
summer fun. The result of this action and rei
action on the Danube, is that its waters are cona
stantly of the fame depth.

- "Lİ. Thus of the rivers which How through Scya
thia,.,the, Danube is the first; next to this is the
Tyres, which rising in the north from an immense
marsh, divides Scythia from Neuris. At the mouth
of this' river those Greeks live who are known by
the name of the Tyritæ...

LII. The third is the Hypanis ; this comes 23 from Scythia, rising from an immense lake, round which are found wild white horses, and which is properly enough called the mother of the Hypaniso. This river through a space of five days

. . :..journeyman! * The Hypanis.)--There were three rivers of this name:- .. One in Scythia, one in the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and a third


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journey from its first rise, is small, and its waters
are sweet; but from thence to the feąg, which is a
journey of four days more, ie becomes exceedingly
bitter. This is occasioned by a small fountain,
which it receives in its pallage, and which is of fo

very bitter a quality", that it; infects this river, Exo t though by no means contemptible in point of size: $9". 29, this fountain rises in the country of the plough

ing Scythians *, and of the Alazones. - It takes the lah
name of the place where it springs, which in the
Scythian tongue is. Exampæus, corresponding in
Greek to the Sacred Ways.” In the district of the
Alazones the streams of the Tyres and the Hypa-
nis have an inclination towards each other, but
they soon separate again to a considerable distance.

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LIII. The fourth river, and the largest next to the Danube, is the Borysthenes 62. In my opinion in India, the largest of that region, and the limits of the conquests of Alexander the Great. This last was sometimes called the Hypasis.-T.

01 Bitter a quality. ]—This circumstanče respecting the Hy. panis is thus mentioned by Ovidi. .

Quid non et Scythicis Hypanis a montibus ortus

Qui fuerat dulcis falibus vitiatür amaris.
It is mentioned alfo by Pomponius Mela, book ií. c. 1.-7.

62 Borysthenes. 1-The emperor Hadrian had a famous horse,
to which he gave this name; when the horse died, his masters
not satisfied with erecting a superb monument to his memory,
inscribed to him some elegant verses, which are fill in being.

** Herodotus diftinguishes the Exe €«o agornges, from the Exebar
yskagyon ;' and the reader is desired to correct Scythian husband-
men for the ploughing Scythians, page 196.

".. this

this river "is' more productive, not only than ali the rivers, of Scythia, but than every other in the world, except the Ægyptian Nile. The Nile; it must be confessed, disdains all comparison; the Bar. rysthenes nevertheless affords most agreeable and excellent pasturage, and contains great abundance of the more delicate fish. Although it flows in the midst of 'mariy turbid' rivers, its waters are perfectly elear' and sweet; its banks are adorned by the richest harvests, and in those places where corn is not fown the grais grows to a lurpriling height; at its mouth a large mass of fält is formed of itself. It produces also a species of large fish, which is called the Antacæus ;-these, which have no prickly fins, the inhabitants salt : it possesses various other things which deserve our adiniration. The courte of the stream may be pursued as far as the country called Gerrhus, through a voyage of forty days, and it is known to flow from the north. Bút of the remoter places through which it passes, no one can fpeak with certainty; it feems probable that it runs towards the district of the Scythian husbandmen, through a pathless desert. For the space of a ten days journey these Scythians inhabit, its banks. The sources of this river only, like those of the Nile, are to me unknown, as I believe they are to every other Greek. This river, as : it approaches the sea, is joined by the Hypanis, and they have both the same termination : the.. neck of land betwixt these two streams is called the 'Hippoleon promontory, in which a temple is Q3'


: 4

. : ? erected to Ceres. Beyond this temple as far as the. Hypanis, dwell the Borysthenites. But on this sub, ject enough has been said.. . :. .

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- LIV, Next to the above, is a fifth river, called
the Panticapes; this also rises in the north, and
from a lake. The interval betwixt this and the
Borysthenes is possessed by the Scythian husband-
men. Having passed through Hylæa, the Panti,
capes mixes with the Borysthenes. .."
par īri

. 147:11204
LV, The sixth river is called the Hypacyrisa
this, rising from a lake; and pasting through the
midst of the Scythian Nomades, empties itself into
the fea near the town of Carcinitis 64. In its
course it bounds to the right Hylæa, and what is it!
called the course of Achilles,


LVI. The name of the seventh river is the Gerrhus ; it takes it name from the place Gerrhus, near which it separates itfelf from the Borysthenes, and where this latter river is firft known. In its paffage to

©3 To Ceres. ]--Some manuscripts read to “ Ceres,” Others to “the Mother;" by this latter exprefiion Çeres must be understood, and not Vesta, as Gronovius would have it. In his observation, that the Scythians were acquainted neither with Ceres nor Cybele, he was perfectly right; but he ought to have remem, bered that the Borysthenites or Olbiopolitæ were of Greek ori, gin, and that they had retained many of the customs and usages of their ancestors.-Larcher. .

64 Carcinitis. ]---Many are of opinion that this is what is now called Golfo di Moscovia, -T.


wards the fea, it divides the Scythian Nomades
from the Royal Scythians, and then mixes with the


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40 LVII. The eighth river is called the Tanais os 1 5"

rising from one immense lake, it empties itself into
another still greater, named the Mæotis, which se.

parates the Royal Scythians from the Sauromatæ. you *1. The Tanais is encreased by the waters of anos ??? 3 ther river, called the Hyrgis. 24

.. : 236

Lvill. The Scythians have thus the advantage of all these celebrated rivers. The grass which this country produces is of all that we know the fullest of moisture, which evidently appears from the dislection of their cattle.

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' LIX. We have shewn that this people poffefs

the greatest abundance; their particular laws and
corpo 65 Tanais.1 - This river is now called the Don. According to

Plutarch, in his Treatise of celebrated Rivers, it derived its
name from a young man called Tanis, who avowing an hatred
of the female sex, was by Venus caused to feel an unnatural
passion for his own mother; and he drowned himself in conse.
quence in this river. It was also called the river of the Ama.
zons; and, as appears froin an old scholiaft on Horace, was
sometimes confounded with the Danube. It divides Europe
from Afia.
Η Ευρωπην δ' Ασιης Ταναις δια μεσσον οριζει.--

See also Quintus Cartius. -Tanais Europan et Afiam me.
dius interfluit. I. vi. c. 2. Of this river very frequent mention
is made by ancient writers; by Horace very elegantly, in the Ode
beginning with “ Extremum Tanaim fi biberes Lyce, &c."-T.


* observances

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