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the ifanders and Ionians hold similar assemblies,
introducing the same two names in their hymns.
This Olen was a native of Lycia, who composed
other ancient hymns in use at Delos. When the
thighs of the victims are consumed on the altar,
the ashes are collected and scattered over the tomb
of Opis and Argis. ' This tomb is behind the temple
of Diana, facing the east, and near the place where 199
the Ceians celebrate their festivals.

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XXXVI. On this subject of the Hyperboreans 201 . we have spoken fufficiently at large, for the story of

Abaris 45, who was said to be an Hyperborean,
and to have made a circuit of the earth with-

out

who declared the orảcies of Apollo. The inhabitants of Delphi
chaunted the hymns which he composed for them. In one of his
hymns he called Ilithya the mother of Love; in another he
affirmed that Juno was educated by the Hours, and was the
mother of Mars and Hebe.--- Larcher.

The word Olen was properly an Ægyprian facred term, and
expressed Olen, Olenus, Ailinus, and Linus, but is of un-
known meaning. We read of Olcnium fidus, Olenia capella,
and the like.

Nascitur Oleniæ fidus pluviale capellæ.-- Ovidii..in
A facred stone in Elis was called Petra Olenia. If then
this Olen, styled an Hyperborean, came from Lycia and Ægypt,
it makes me persuaded of what I have often suspected, that
the term Hyperborean is not of that purport which the Grecians
have assigned to it. There were people of this family from the
north, and the name has been distorted, and adapted solely to
people of those parts. But there were Hyperboreans from the
east, as we find in the history of Olen.--See Bryant farther on
this subject, vol. iii. 492-3.
45 Abaris.]-Jamblicus says of this Abaris, that he was the

disciple

out food, and carried on an arrow 45, merits no
attention. As there are Hyperboreans, or inz.
habitants of the extreme parts of the north, one ,
would suppose there ought, allo to be Hyper-
notians, or inhabitants of the corresponding parts
of the south. For my own part I cannot but?
think it exceedingly ridiculous to hear fome
men talk of the circumference of the earth, pre-
tending, without the smallest reason or proba-
bility, that the ocean encompasses the earth; that
the earth is round, as if mechanically forined so; and
that Asia is equal to Europe. I will, therefore,
concisely describe the figure and the size of each of
these portions of the earth.

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XXXVII. The region occupied by the Persians extends fouthward to the Red Sea ; beyond these to the north are the Medes, next to them are the Sapirians. Contiguous to the Sapirians, and where the Phasis empties itself into the Northern Sea, are the Colchians. These four nations occupy the space i between the two seas. disciple of Pythagoras; some say he was older than Solon; he foretold earthquakes, plagues, &c. Authors differ much as to the time of his coming into Greece: Harpocration says it was in the time of Crosus.--T. * 45 On an arrow.) - There is a fragment preserved in the Anecdota Graca, a translation of which Larcher gives in his notes, i which throws much light upon this singular passage; it is this: a famine having made its appearance amongst the Hyperboreans, Abaris went to Greece, and entered into the service of Apollo... The deity taught him to declare oracles. In consequence of this, he travelled through Greece, declaring oracles, having in his hand an arrow, the symbol of Apollo -T.

P 3

XXXVIII

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XXXVIII. From hence to the west two tracts of land stretch themselves towards the sea, which I shall describe: The one on the north side commences at the Phasis, and extends to the sea along the Euxine and the Hellespont, as far as the Sigeum of Troy. On the south side it begins at the Marandynian bay, contiguous to Phænicia, and is continued to the sea as far the Triopian promontory; this space of country is inhabited by thirty different nations.

· XXXIX. The other district commences in Perfia, and is continued to the Red Sea 47. Besides Persia, it comprehends Affyria and Arabia, naturally terminating in the Arabian Gulph, into which Darius introduced 48 a channel of the Nile. The interval from Persia to Phænicia is very extensive. From Phænica it again continues beyond Syria of Palestine, as far as Ægypt, where it terminates.

· 47 The Red Sea.] It is necessary to be observed, that not only the Arabian Gulph was known by this name, but also the Per. sian Gulph and the Southern Ocean, that is to say, that vast tract of sea which lies between the two gulphs.-Larcher.

What Herodotus calls the Erythrean Sea, he carefully diftinguishes from the Arabian Gulph. . Both Herodotus and Agathemenus industriously distinguish the Erythrean Sea from the Arabian Gulph, though the latter was certainly so called, and had the name of Erythrean. The Parthic empire, which included Persis, is by Pliny said to be bounded to the south by the Mare Rubrum, which was the boundary also of the Persians : by Mare Rubrum he here means the great southern sea.--Bryant. 48. Darius introduced.]-See book the second, chap. 158.

Thc The whole of this region is occupied by three nations only. Such is the division of Asia from Persia westward.

XL. To the east beyond Persia, Media, the Sapinians and Colchians, the country is bounded by the Red Sea ; to the north by the Caspian and the river Araxes, which directs its course towards the east. As far as India, Asia is well inhabited ; but from India eastward the whole country is one vaft defert, unknown and unexplored.

XLI. The second tract comprehends Libya; which begins where Ægypt ends. About Ægypt the country is very narrow. One hundred thousand orgyiæ, or one thousand ftadia, comprehend the space between this and the Red Sea 49. Here the country expands, and takes the name of Libya.

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XLII. I am much surprized at those who have divided and defined the limits of Libya, Asia, and Europe, betwixt which the difference is far from Tmall. Europe, for instance, in length much ex. ceeds the other two, but is of far inferior breadth; }

49 This and the Red Sea.]Here we must neceffarily under, stand the isthmus between the Mediterranean and the Arabian Gulph or Red Sea. Heredotus says, book i. chap. 158, that the shortest way betwixt one sea and the other was one thousand {tadia,' Agrippa fays, on the authority of Pliny, that from Pe. lufium to Arsinöe on the Red Sea was one hundred and twentyfive miles, which comes to the same thing, that author always reckoning eight stadia to a mile-Larcher,

except in that particular part which is contiguous to Alia, the whole of Africa is surrounded by the sea. The first person who has proved this, was, as far as we are able to judge, Necho king of Ægypt. When he had desisted from his attempt to join by a canal the Nile with the Arabian Gulph, he difpatched some vessels, under the conduct of Phoenicians, with directions to pass by the columns of Hercules, and after penetrating the Northern Ocean to return to Ægypt. These Phænicians, taking their course from the Red Sea, entered into the Southern Ocean : on the approach of autumn they landed in Libya, and planted some corn in the place where they happened to find themselves; when this was tipe, and they had cut it down, they again

50 Dispatched fame vejels. 1-This Necho is the same who in fcripture is called Pharaoh Necho. He made an attempt to join the Nile and the Red Sea, by drawing a canal from the one to the ather; but after he had consumed an hundred and twenty thonfarid men'in' the work, he was forced to defiit from it. But he had better success in another undertaking, for having got: ten some of the experteit Phænician sailors into his service, he fent tlxem out by the Red Sea, through the firaits of Babelman, del, to discover the coasts of Africa, who having failed round it cáme home the third year through the straits of Gibraltar' and the Mediterranean Sea, which was a very extraordinary voyage to be made in those days, when the use of the loadstone was not known. This voyage was performed about two thousand one hundred years before Vasquez de Gama, a Portugueze, by discovering the Cape of Good Hope. in 1497, found out the same way from hence to the Indies by which these Phænicians came from thence. Since that it hath been made the common paf. sage thither from all these western parts of the world.---Prie deaux,

departed.

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