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they procure partly by digging, partly from the
rivers, but principally by the method above de-
scribed. They possess likewise a kind of plant,
which, instead of fruit, produces wool 24, of a finer -.
and better quality than that of sheep: of this the
natives make their cloaths.

EiB 3.!!? 12 C VII. The last inhabited country towards the fi'

fouth, is Arabia, the only region of the earth which
produces frankincense 125, myrrh, cinnamon 126,



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324 Produces wool.] This was douňtless the cotton shrub,
called by the ancients byssus. This plant grows to the height
of about four feet: it has a yellow flower, streaked with red,
not unlike that of the mallow; the pisti! becomes a pod of the
size of a small egg; in this are from three to four cells, each of
which, on bursting, is found to contain seeds involved in a sing
whitish substance, which is the cotton. The time of gather-
ing the cotton is when the fruit bursts, which happens in the
months of March and April. The scientific name of this plants
is goffypium.-T.

125 Frankincense.)-This, of all perfumes, was the most efteem.”
ed by the ancients; it was used in divine worship, and was
in a manner appropriated to princes and great men. Those..
employed in preparing it were naked, they had only a girdile
about their loins, which their master had the precaution to secure
with his own seal. T.

126 Cinnamon-is a species of laurel, the bark of which
conftitutes its valuable part. This is taken off in the months of
September and February. When cut into small slices, it is ex-
pored to the sun, the heat of which curls it up in the form in
which we receive and use it. The berry, when boiled in water,
yields, according to Raynal, an oil, which, suffered to congeal
acquires a whiteness. Of this candles are made, of a very aro-
matic smell, which are reserved for the sole use of the king of
Ceylon, in which place it is principally found.-T.


calia 127, and ledanum 13. Except the myrrh, the Arabians obtain all these aromatics withoué any confiderable trouble. To collect the frankinčenfe, they burn under the tree which produces it a quantity of the ftyras 1:9, which the Phænicians export into Greece; for these trees are each of them guarded by a prodigious number of flying serpents, small of body, and of different colours, which are dispersed by the smoke of the gum. It is this fpecies of ferpent which in an immenfe body infests Ægypt.

CVIII. The Arabians, moreover, affirm, that their whole country would be filled with these serpents, if the same thing were not to happen with respect to thein which we know happens, and, as it should seem, providentially, to the vipers. Those animals, which are more timid, and which serve for the purpose of food, to prevent their total consumption are always remarkably proli

527 Casio.]---This is, I believe, a bastard kind of cinnamon, called in Europe cafia lignea; the merchants mix it with true cinnamon, which is four times its value; it is to be distinguished by a kind of viscidity perceived in chewing it.-7. , 128 Ledanum.]-Ledanum, or ladanum, according to Pliny, was a gum made of the dew which was gathered from a shrub called lada.-T.

529 Styrax.]- This is the gum of the storax tree, is very aromatic, and brought to this country in considerable quantities from the Archipelago. It is cbtained by making incisions in the tree. The Turks adulterate it with saw-dust. Another species of forax is imported to Europe from America, and is procured from the liquid amber-tree. I.

kit 130, which is tot the case with those which are fierce and venomous. The hare, for instance, the prey of every beast and bird, as well as of man, produces young abundantly. It is the fingular property of this animal"}', that it conceives a second time, when it is already pregnant; and at the fame time carries in its womb young ones covered with down, others not yet formed, others just beginning to be formed, whilst the mother herself is again ready to conceive. But the lioness, of all animals the strongeft and most ferocious, produces but one young one '32 in her life, for at the birth of her cub she loses her matrix. The reason of this seems to be, that as the claws of the lion are sharper by much than those of any other animal, the cub, as foon as it begins to stir in the womb, injures and tears the matrix, which it does still more and more

13o Remarkably prolific.]~See Derham's chapter on the ba. lance of animals, Phyfico-Theology, b. iv. ch. X. and ch. xiv. $. 3. · 338. The fingular property of this animal. ]-With respect to the superfætation of this animal, Pliny makes the fame remark, afSagning the same reason. Lepus omnium prædæ nascens, folus præter Dasypodem superfætat, aliud educans, aliud in utero pilis vestitum, aliud implume, aliud inchoatum gerens pariter. This doctrine of superfætation is strenuously defended by Sir T. Brown, in his Vulgar Errors; and, as far as it respects the animal in question, is credited by Larcher: but Mr. Pennant very sensibly remarks, that as the hare breeds very frequently in the course of the year, there is no necessity of having recourse to this doctrine to account for their numbers.--T. . . 132 But one young one.)-This assertion is perfectly absurd and false, The lioness has from two to fix young ones, and the fame lioness has been known to litter four or five times.-T.. Vol. II. ' K

į as

as it grows bigger, so that at the time of its birth no, part of the womb remains whole.

CIX. Thus, therefore, if vipers and those winged ferpents of Arabia were to generate in the ordinary course of nature, the natives could not live. But it happens, that when they are incited by luft to copulate, at the very instant of emission the female seizes the male by the neck, and does not quit her hold till she has quite devoured it "33. The male thus perishes, but the female is also punished; for whilst the young are still within the womb, as the time of birth approaches, to make themselves a passage they tear in pieces the matrix, thus avenging their father's death. Those serpents which are not injurious to mankind lay eggs, and produce a great quantity of young. There are vipers in every part of the world, but winged serpents are found only in Arabia, where there are great numbers,

CX. We have described how the Arabians procure their frankincense; their mode of obtaining the cassia is this:-The whole of their body, and the face, except the eyes, they cover with skins of different kinds; they thus proceed to the place where it grows, which is in a marsh not very deep, but infested by a winged species of animal much resembling a bat, very strong, and making a hideous noise; they protect their eyes from these, and then gather the caffia.

33 Quite devoured it.)-This narrative must also be considered as entirely fabulous.T.

: ;' CXI.

TÌ A L I A. 131 147 CX1. Their manner of collecting the cinna. 1-/mon 134 is still more extraordinary. In what parti

cular spot it is produced, they themselves are unable qr to certify. There are some who affert that it grows

k in the region where Bacchus was educated, and their

mode of reasoning is by no means improbable. These affirm that the vegetable substance, which we, as instructed by the Phænicians'ss, call cinna



534 Cinnamon. ]---The fubftance of Larcher's very long and learned note on this subject, may, if I mistake not, be comprised in very few words: by cinnamomum the ancients understood a branch of that tree, bark and all, of which the cassia was the bark only. The cutting of these branches is now prohibited, because found destructive of the tree. I have before observed, that of cinnamon there are different kinds; the cassia of Herodotus was, doubtless, what we in general understand to be cinnamon, of which our callia, or caffia lignea, is an inferior kind,


135 As instructed by the Phænicians.]-I cannot refif the plea. sure of giving at full length the note of Larcher on this passage, which detects and explains two of the most fingular and unaccountable errors ever committed in literature. .

« The above is the crue sense of the passage, which Pliny has mistaken. He makes Herodotus say that the cinnamon and cafia are found in the nests of certain birds, and in particular of the phenix. Cinnamomum et cafias, fabulose narravit antiquitas, princepsve Herodotus, avium nidis et privatim phænicis, in quo fitu Liber Pater educatus esset, ex inviis rupibus arboribusque decuti. The above passage from Pliny, Dupin has trans - | lated, most ridiculously, • l'antiquité fabuleuse, et le prince des menteurs, Herodote, difent,' &c. He should have faid Herodotus first of all, for princeps, in this place, does not mean prince, and menteur cannot possibly be implied from the text of · Pliny. Pliny had reason to consider the circumftance as fabulous, but he ought not to have imputed it to our historian, who

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