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swift as horses, and capable of bearing much greater burdens '?9.


*19 Greater burdens.] Of all the descriptions I have inet with of this wonderful animal, the following, from Volney, seems the most animated and interesting:

No creature seems.fo peculiarly fitted to the climate in which . it exists, as the camel. Designing the camel to dwell in a :

country where he can find little nourishment, nature has been fparing of her materials in the whole of his formation. She has not bestowed upon him the fleshiness of the ox, horse, or ele. phant, but limiting herself to what is strictly necessary, she has given him a small head without ears, at the end of a long neck without fesh. She has taken from his legs and thighs every muscle not immediately requisite for motion, and in short has bestowed on his withered body only the vessels and tendons necessary to connect its frame together. She has furnished him with a strong jaw, that he may grind the hardest aliments; but, left he should consume too much, she has straitened his stomach, and obliged him to chew the cud. She has lined his foot with a lump of Aesh, which, sliding in the mud, and being no way adapted to climbing, fits him only for a dry, level, and sandy foil, like that of Arabia: she has evidently destined him likewise for slavery, by refusing him every sort of defence against his enemies. So great, in hort, is the importance of the came! to the desert, that were it deprived of that useful animal, it mult infallibly lose every inhabitant. Volney.

With respect to the burdens which camels are capable of carTying, Russel tells us, that the Arab camel will carry one hun. dred rotoloes, or five hundred pounds weiglit; but the Turco. mans camel's common load is one hundred and fixty rotoloes, or eight hundred pounds weight. Their ordinary pace is very flow, Volney fay's, not more than thirty-fix hundred yards in an hour; it is needless to press them, they will go no quicker. Raynal fays, that the Arabs qualify the camels for expedition by matches, in which the horse runs against him; the camel, less active and nimble, tires out his rival in a long course. There as one peculiarity with respect to camels, which not being gene


S CIII. As my countrymen of Greece are well acquainted with the form of the camel, I shall not here describe it; I shall only mention those particulars concerning it with which I conceive them to be less acquainted 120. Behind, the camel has four thighs, and as many knee joints ; the member of

generation falls from between the hinder legs, and • is turned towards the tail.

CIV. Having thus connected their camels, the Indians proceed in search of the gold, choosing the hottest time of the day as most proper for their purpose, for then it is that the ants conceal themselves under the ground. In distinction from all other nations, the heat with these people is greatest, not rally known, I give the reader, as translated from the Latin of Father Strope, a learned German missionary. “ The camels which have had the honour to bear presents to Mecca and Medina are not to be treated aftewards as common animals; they are considered as consecrated to Mahomet, which exempts them from all labour and service. They have cottages built for their abodes, where they live at ease, and receive plenty of food, with the most careful attention.”-T..

120 To be less acquainted.]—These farther particulars concerning the camel, are taken from Mr. Pennant.

The one-bunched camel, is the Arabian camel, the twobunched, the Bactrian. The Arabian has fix callofities on the legs, will kneel down to be loaded, but rises the moment he finds the burden equal to his strength. They are gentle always, except when in heat, when they are seized with a sort of madness, which makes it unsafe to approach them. The Bac. trian camel is larger and more generous than the domesticated race. The Chinese have a swift variety of this, which they call by the expreflive name of Fong Kyo Fo, or camels with feet of the wind,

at mid-day, but in the morning. They have a vertical sun till about the time when with us people withdraw from the forum ??'; during which period the warmth is more excessive than the mid-day sun in Greece, so that the inhabitants are then said to go into the water for refreshment. Their mid-day is nearly of the same temperature as in other places; after which the warmth of the air becomes like the morning elsewhere; it then progressively grows

521 People withdraw from the forum.]. -The times of the foruin were so exa&ily ascertained, as to serve for a notation of time. The time of full forum is mentioned by many authors, . as Thucydides, Xenophon, Diodorus Siculus, Lucian, and others, and is said by Suidas to have been the third hour in the morning that is, nine o'clock; and Dio Chryscitom places it as an intermediate point between moming, or fun-rise, and noon, which agrees also with nine o'clock; One passage in Suidas speaks also of the fourth, fifth, and fixth hours; but either they were fora of different kinds, or the author is there mistaken, or the passage is corrupt. See Ælian, xii. 30. and Athenæus, xiv. 1. the time of breaking up the forum, adogns dizaugos, is not, I believe, mentioned, except here, by Herodotus; but by this passage it appears that it must have been also a stated time, and before noon; probably ten or eleven o'clock. This account of a fun, hotter and more vertical in the morning than at noon, is so perfectly unphilosophical, that it proves decisively, what the hypothesis of our author concerning the overflowing of the Nile gave strong reason to suspect, that Herodotus was perfectly un. informed on subjects of this kind. Mid-day, or noon, can be only, at all places, when the sun is highest and consequently Botteit, unless any clouds or periodical winds had been assigned as causes of this singular effect. Whoever fabricated the account he here repeats thought it necessary to give an appearance of novelty even to the celestial phenomena of the place.

Herodotus himself uses the term of gramowqae egagns in book üia ch. 173, and vii. 223.-T.


milder, till at the setting fun it becomes very
cool. i. .

CV. As soon as they arrive at the spot, the Indians precipitately fill their bags with fand, and return as expeditiously as possible. The Persians say that these ants know and pursue the Indians by their smell, with inconceivable swiftness. They affirm, that if the Indians did not make considerable progress whilst the ants were collecting themfelves together, it would be impossible for any of them to escape. For this reason, at different intervals 122, they separate one of the male camels from the female, which are always fleeter than the males, and are at this time additionally incited by the remembrance of their young whom they had left. Thus, according to the Persians, the Indians obtain their greateft quantity of gold; what they procure by 3. / digging is of much inferior importance. I

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CVI. Thus it appears that the extreme parts of a 127 the habitable world are distinguished by the post

Tefsion of many beautiful things, as Greece is for
its agreeable and temperate feasons. India, as I
have already remarked, is the last inhabited country

122 At different intervals.]-This passage is somewhat perplex. ing. The reader must remember that the Indian rode upon the female camel, which was betwixt two males. This being the moderne swifteft, he trusted to it for his own personal fecarity; and it may ***:>! be fupposed that he unied one or both of the male camels, as the enemy approached, or as his fears got the better of his ava. rice.-T. I


izĞ' I À i f A. .. towards the eart where every species of birds and of quadrupeds, horses excepted "23, are much larger than in any other part of the world. Their horses are not so large as the Nisæan horses of Media. They have also a great abundance of gold, which

: 123 Horses excepted.]—Every thing of moment which is involved in the natural history of the horse, may be found in M. Buffon. But, as Mr. Pennant observes, we may in this country boast a variety which no other single kingdom poffesses. Most other countries produce but one kind; while ours, by a judicious mixture of the several species, by the happy difference of our foil, and by our superior skill in management, may triumph over the rest of Europe in having brought each quality of this noble animal to the highest perfection. The fame author tells us, that the horse is in some places found wild; that these are less than the domestic kinds, of a mouse colour, have greater heads than the tame, their foreheads remarkably arched, go in great herds, will often surround the horses of the Mongals and Kalkas while they are grazing, and carry them away. These are excessively vigilant: a centinel placed on an eminence gives notice to the herd of any approaching danger, by neighing aloud, when they all run off with amazing swiftness. These are sometimes taken by the means of hawks, which fix on their heads, and distress them so as to give the pursuers time to overtake them. In the interior parts of Ceylon is a small variety of the horse, not exceeding thirty inches in height, which is sometimes brought to Europe as a rarity. It may not, in this place, be impertinent to inform the reader, that in the East the riding on a horse is deemed very honourable, since Europeans are very feldom permitted to do it. In the book of Ecclesiastes, chap. x. ver. 7. we meet with this expression, “I have seen servants on horses,” which we may of course understand to be spoken of a thing very unusual and improper.

To conclude this subject, I have only to observe, that the Arabian horses are juftly allowed to be the finest in the world în point of beauty and of swiftness, and are sent into all parts to improve the breed of this animal.-T.


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