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amount of a thousand talents.- Independent of the tributes before specified, these were the prefents which the king received.

XCVIII, The Indians procure the great number of golden ingots, which, as I have observed, they present as a donative to the king, in this manner:That part of India which lies towards the east is very fandy; and indeed, of all nations concerning whom we have any authentic accounts, the Indians are the people of Asia who are nearest the east, and the place of the rising fun. The part most eastward, is a perfect defert, from the land. Under the name of Indians many nations are comprehended, using different languages; of these fome attend principally to the care of cattle, others not: fome inhabit the marshes, and live on raw fish, which they catch in boats made of reeds, divided at the joint, and every joint "2 makes one canoe. These Indians have a dress made of rulhes "), which --


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112 Every joint.)-This affertion seems wonderful ; but Pliny, book xvị. chap. 36, treating of reeds, canes, and aquatic shrubs, affirms the fame, with this precaution indeed, “if it may be credited.” His expresion is this :-Harundini quidem Indicæ arborea amplitudo, quales vulgo in templis videmus,-Spiffius mari corpus, fæminæ gapacjus. Navigiorumque etiam vicem prækant (a credimus) fingula internodia.-T

113 Cloaths made of rupes, To trace the modern dress back to the simplicity of the first skins, and leaves, and feathers, that were worn by mankind in the primitive ages, if it were possible, would be almost endless; the fathion has been often changed, while the materials remained the same; the materials have been



having mowed and cut, they weave together like a mat, and wear in the manner of a cuirass.: .

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XCIX. To the east of these are other Indians, called Padæi "14, who lead a pastoral life, live on raw fleth's,

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different as they were gradually produced by fucceflive arts, that converted a raw hide into leather, the wool of the sheep into

cloth, the web of the worm into filk, and flax and cotton into 9. linen of various kinds. One garment also has been added to anoo ther, and ornaments have been multiplied on ornaments, with

a variety almost infinite; produced by the caprice of human vanity, or the new nécessities to which man rendered himself fub. ject by those many inventions which took place after he ceased to be, as God had created him, upright.-See historical remarks on dress, prefixed to a collection of the dresses of different nations, ancient and modern. ; .;

: ' : House The canoes and dresses here described, will strike the reader as much resembling those seen and described by modern voy, agers to the South Seas.-T. ** 114 Padæi.]

.. Impia nec fævis celebrans convivia menfis į... Ultima vicinus Phæbo tenet arva Padæus.

Tibull. 1. iv. 144 1.115 On rarw flesh.]-Not at all more incredible is the custom said to be prevalent among the Abyssinians, of eating a sice of meät raw from the living ox, and esteeming it one of the greatest delicacies. The assertion of this fact by Mr. Bruce, the celebrated traveller, has excited a clamour against him, and by calling his veracity in question, has probably operated, amongst other causes, to the delay of a publication 'much and eagerly

expected. This very fact, however, is also asserted of the Abyssiniin sans by Lobo and Poncet. If it be allowed without reserve, an

argument is deducible from it, to prove that bullock's blood, in contradiction to what is asserted by our historian, in ch. 15. of this book, is not a poison ; unlefs' we sappose that the quantity thus


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and are said to observe these customs :-If any man among them be diseased, his nearest connections put him to death, alledging in excuse that sickness would waste and injure his fesh. They pay no régard to his affertions that he is not really ill, but without the finallest compunction deprive him of life. Ifa, woman be ill, her female connections treat her in the same manner. The more aged among them are regularly killed and eaten ; but to old age there are very few who arrive, for in case of sickness they put every one to death.


C. There are other Indians, who, differing in manners from the above, put no animal to death "10, sow no grain, have no fixed habitations, and live solely upon vegetables. They have a particular grain, nearly of the size of millet, which the soil spone taneously produces, which is protected by a calyx, the whole of this they bake and eat. If any of these be taken fick, they retire to some solitude, and there remain, no one expressing the least concern about them during their illness, or after their death,

Cl. Among all these Indians whom I have specie fied, the communication between the sexes is like

taken into the stomach would be too small to produce the per en effect. Lobo, as well as Mr. Bruce, affirms, that the

Abyffinians eat beef, not only in a raw state, but reeking from the ox.-T.

116. Put no animal to death.]-Nicolas Damafcenus has preserved the name of this people. He calls them Aritonians. Larcher.


that of the beasts, open and unrestrained. They are all of the same complexion, and much resembling the Æthiopians. The semen which their males emir is not, like that of other men, white, but black like their bodies "), which is also the case with the Æthiopians. These Indians are very remote from Persia towards the fouth, and were never in subjection to Darius,

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: CII. There are still other Indians towards the north, who dwell near the city of Caspatyrum, and the country of Pactyïca. Of all the Indians these in their manners most resemble the Bactrians; they are diftinguished above the rest by their bravery, and are those who are employed in searching for the gold. In the vicinity of this district there are valt deserts of fand, in which a species of ants" is produced,

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149 Black like their bodies. 1-Semen fi probe conco&tum fuerit, colore album et splendens effe oportet, ut vel hinç pateat quam parum vere Herodotus scribat femen nigrum Æthiopes promere. Rodericus a Castro de universa mulierum medicina.-Ariftotle had before said the same thing, in his history of animals.Larcher.

148 Species.of ants,]mOf thefe ants Pliny, also makes mention, in the following terms:

« In the teniple of Hercules, at Erythræ, the horns of an Indian ant were to be seen, an astonishing object. In the country of the northern Indians, named Dandæ, these ants call up gold from holes within the earth. In colour they resemble cats, and are as large as the wolves of Ægypt. This gold, which they throw up in the winter, the Indians contrive to steal in the fummer, when the ants, on account of the heat, hide themselves under ground. But if they happen to smell them, the ants rush


not fo large as a dog, but bigger than a fox. Some of these, taken by hunting, are preserved in the palace of the Persian monarch. Like the ants common in Greece, which in form also they nearly resemble, they make themselves habitations in the ground, by digging under the sand. The fand thus thrown up is mixed with gold dust, to collect which the Indians are dispatched into the deserts. To this expedition they proceed each with three camels fastened together, a female being secured between two males, and upon her the Indian is mounted, taking particular care to have one which recently has foaled. The females of this description are in all respects as

from their holes, and will often tear them in pieces, though mounted on their swifteft camels, such is the swiftness and fierce. ness they display from the love of their gold." ;

Upon the above Larcher has this remark:-The little communication which the Greeks had with the Indians, prevented their investigating the truth with respect to this animal; and their love of the marvellous inclined them to assent to this defcription of Herodotus. Demetrius Triclinius says, on the Antigone of Sophocles, doubtlefs from fome ancient Scholiast which he copies, that there are in India winged animals, named ants, which dig up gold. Herodotus and Pliny say nothing of their having wings. Most of our readers will be induced to consider the description of these ants as fabulous; nevertheless, de Thou, an author of great credit, tells us, that Shah Thomas, fophi of Perfia, fent, in the year 1559, to Soliman an ant like these here described.

They who had feen the vast nests of the termites, or white. ants, might easily be persuaded that the animals which formed them were as large as foxes. The disproportion between the infect, though large, and its habitation, is very extraodinary. T.


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