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32. 112T H A L I A. Persians and their auxiliary troops garrisoned within the white castle of Memphis : this was the sixth fatrapy. The seventh was composed of the Satgagydæ, the. Gandarii, the Dadicæ and Aparytæ, who together paid one hundred and seventy talents. The eighth satrapy furnished three hundred talents, and consisted of Sula and the rest of the Cisliang.


XCII. Babylon and the other parts of. Affyria constituted the ninth satrapy, and paid a thoufand talents of silver, with five hundred young eunuchs. The tenth satrapy furnished four hundred and fifty talents, and consisted of Ecbatana, the rest of Media, the Parycanii, and the Orthocorybantes. The Caspians, the Pausicæ, the Pantimathi, and the Daritæ, contributed amongst then two hundred talents, and, formed the eleventh satrapy. The twelfth produced three hundred and sixty talents, and was composed of the whole country from the Bactrians to Æglos. ,


XCIII. From the thirteenth satrapy four hundred talents were levied; this comprehended Pactyica o the Armeniaris, with the contiguous nations, as far as the Euxine. The fourteenth fatrapy consisted of the Sangatians, the Sarangæans, the Thamanæans, Uti: / 37 ans, and Menci, with those who inhabit the ihands branded companies of the Red Sea, where the king sends those whom 2 he banishes so these jointly contributed six hundred

i talents, o

1 - 79 106 Whom he banishes. ]--Banishment seems to have been


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talents. The Sacæ and Caspii formed the fifteenth / satrapy, and provided two hundred and fifty talents. Three hundred talents were levied from the Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, and Ariats, who were the fixteenth fatrapy.

conmembe reconnaty, me

hat at, as of

XCIV. The Paricanii and Æthiøpians of Asia paid four hundred talents, and formed the seventeenth fatrapy. The eighteenth was taxed at two hundred talents, and was composed of the Matiéni, the Saspirés, and Alarodians. The Moschi,

vreme seks room with ** adopted as a punishment at a very early period of the world ; and it may be supposed that, in the infancy of society, men, reluctant to sanguinary measures, would have recourse to the ex. pulsion of mischievous or unworthy members, as the simpler and befs odious remedy. When we consider the effect which exile has had apon the minds of the greatest and wisest of mankinds and reflect on that attractive sweetness of the natal soil, which whilft we admire in poetic description we still feel to be ratione valentior omni, it seems wonderful that banishment should not more frequently supersede the neceffity of fanguinary punishmehts. That Ovid, whose mind was énervated by licentious habits, should deploré, in strains the most melancholy, the ab. fence of what alone could make life fupportable, may not per: haps be thought wonderful; but that Cicero, whose whole life was a life of philosophic discipline, should fo entirely lose his firmness, and forget his dignity, may justify our concluding of the punishment of exile, that human vengeance need not inflict à more severe calamity. In opposition to what I have asserted above, some reader will perhaps be inclined to cite the example of Lord Bolingbroke, his conduct, and his reflections upon éxile; but I think I can discern through thať läboured apo. logy, a fécrét chagrin and uneafiness, which convinces me at least, that whilst he acted the philosopher and the stoic, he had the common feelings and informities of man.-T.



Tibareni, Macrones, Mofynæci, and Mardians, provided three Hundred talents, and were the nineteenth fatrapy, The Indians, the most numerous nation of whom we have any knowledge, were proportionally taxed; they formed the twentieth fatrapy, and furnished six hundred talents in golden ingots.

XCV. If the Babylonian money be reduced to the standard of the Euboic talent, the aggregate sum will be found to be nine thousand eight hundred and eighty talents in silver; and, estimating the gold at thirteen times to the value of silver, there will be found, according to the Euboic talent, four thoufand six hundred and eighty of these talents. The whole being estimated together, it will appear that the annual tribute 158 paid to Darius was fourteen

I thousand

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107 Thirteen times the value of silver.]—The proportion of gold to filver varied at different times, according to the abundance of these two metals. In the time of Darius it was thirteen to one; in the time of Plato, twelve; and in the time of Menander, the comic poet, it was ten.--Larcher. . In the time of Julius Cæfar the proportion of gold to Silver at Rome was no more than nine to one. This arose from the prodigious quantity of gold which Cæsar had obtained from the plunder of cities and temples. It is generally supposed amongst the learned, that in the gold coin of the ancients one-fiftieth part was alloy.-I.

108 The annual tribute. ]—The comparison of two passages in Herodotus (book i. chap.cxcii. and book iii. chaps. Ixxxix, xcvi.) reveals an important difference between the gross and the net revenue of Persia, the sums paid by the provinces, and the gold or filver deposited in the royal treasury. The monarch

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thousand five hundred and fixty talents, omitting
imany triling sums not deserving our attention,

XCVI. Such was the sum which Asia principally,
and Africa in some small proportion; paid to Darius.
In process of time the illands also were taxed, as was
that part of Europe which extends to Thessaly. The
manner in which the king deposited these riches in
his treasury; was this :-The gold and silver was
melted and poured into earthen vessels; the vessel,
when full, was removed, leaving the metal in a mass.
When any was wanted, such a piece was broken
off as the contingence required. Any •

XCVII, We have thus described the different satrapies, and the impost on each. Persia is the only province which I have not mentioned as tributary. The Persians are not compelled to pay any specific taxes, but they present a regular gratuity. The Æthiopians who border upon Ægypt, fubdued by Cambyses in his expedition against the

Ethiopian Macrobians are similarly circumstanced, as are also the inhabitants of the facred town of

Nyffa, who have festivals in honour of Bacchus. Jos These Æthiopians, with their neighbours, resemble

in their customs the Calantian Indians : they have - the same rites of sepulture to, and their dwellings

start this 3-761.2 8 7. are.
might annually fáve three millions fix hundred thousand pounds
of the seventeen or eighteen millions raised upon the people.com
109 The same rites of fepulture.]-The word in the text is


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are subterraneous. Once in every three years these two nations present to the king two chanices of gold unrefined, two hundred blocks of ebony, twenty large elephants teeth, and five Æthiopian youths, which custom has been continued to my time. The people of Colchos 'o and their neighbours, as far as mount Caucasus, imposed upon themselves the payment of a gratuity. To this latter place the Persian authority extends; northward of this their name inspires no regard. Every five years the nations above-mentioned present the king with an hundred youths and an hundred virgins'', which also has been continued within my remembrance. The Arabians contribute every year frankincense to the

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omeguati, which means grains : to fay of two different nations that they use the same grain, seems ridiculous enoagh. Valcnaer propofes to read onpati, which feems obvious and satisfactory.

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110 The people of Colchos. ]—It was the boast of the Colchians, that their ancestors had checked the victories of Sefoftris, but they funk without any memorable effort under the arms of Cyrus, followed in diftant wars the standard of the great king, and prefented him every fifth year with a hundred boys and as many

virgins, the fairest produce of the land. Yet he accepted this .gifi fike the gold and ebony of India, the frankincenfe of the

Arabs, and the negroes and ivory of Æthiopia : The Colchians 'were not subject to the dominion of a fatrap, and they continued to enjoy the name as well as fubstance of national independence.Gibbon.

11 Hundred virgins. ]— The native race of Perfians is small wow and ugly, but it has been improved by the perpetual mixture of p... come mori Circassian blood. This remark Mr. Gibbon applies to the Per

fian women in the time of Julian. Amongit modern travellers, S the beauty of the Persian ladies is a conitant cheme of praise and

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un admiration.-7.


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