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was thus proclaimed king; and, except the Aram bians, all the nations of Asia who had been subdued first by Cyrus, and afterwards by Cambyses, com acknowledged his authority. 'The Arabians were never reduced to the subjection of Persia 99, but were in its alliance : they afforded Cambyses the means of penetrating into Ægypt, without which he could never have accomplished his purpose. Darius first of all married two women of Persia, both of them daughters of Cyrus, Atoffa who had first been married to Cambyses, and afterwards to

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99 Never reduced to the fubjetion of Perfia.]-The independence of the Arabs has always been a theme of praise and admiration, from the remotest ages to the present. Upon this subject the following animated apostrophe from Mr. Gibbon, includes all that need be said. “ The arms of Sesoitris and Cyrus, of Pompey and Trajan, could never atchieve the conguelt of Arabja. The present, sovereign of the Turks may exercise a Ihadow of jurisdiction, but his pride is reduced to sollicit the friendship of a people whom it is dangerous to provoke, and fruitless to attack. The obvious causes of their freedom arc inscribed on the character and country of the Arabs; the paţient and active virtues of a soldier are insensibly nursed in the habits and discipline of a pastoral life. The long memory of their independence is the firmeft pledge of its perpetuity; and succeeding generations are animated to prove their descent, and. to maintain their inheritance. When they advance to battle, the hope of victory is in the front, and in the rear the aisurance of a retreat, Their horses and camels, who in eight or ten days can perform a march of four or five hundred miles, disappcar before the conqueror: the secret waters of the desart elude his search ; and his victorious troups are consumed with hunger, thirst, and fatigue, in the pursuit of an invisible foe, who scorns his efforts, and safely repcses in the heart of the burning foli.

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the magus, and Antystone a virgin. He then married Parmys, daughter of Smerdis, son of Cyrus, and that daughter of Otanes who had been the instrument in discovering the magus. Being firmly established on the throne, his first work was the erection of an equestrian statue, with this inscription: “ Darius, son of Hystaspes, obtained the « sovereignty of Persia by the fagacity of his horse, “ and the ingenuity of Ebares his groom.” The name of the horse was also inserted,

LXXXIX. The next act of his authority was to divide Persia into twenty provinces, which they call fatrapies, to each of which a governor was appointed. He then ascertained the tribute they were severally to pay, connecting sometimes many nations together, which were near each other, under one district; and sometimes he passed over many which were adjacent, forming one government of various remote and scattered nations. His particular division of the provinces, and the mode fixed for the payment of their annual tribute, was this: They whose payment was to be made in silver, were to take the Babylonian talent 100 for their

standard ;

sco Babylonion telent.]—What follows on the subject of the talent, is extracted principally from Arbuthnot's tables of ancient coins.

The word talent in Homer, is used to signify a balarce, and in general it was applied either to a weight or a sum of money, differing in value according to the ages and countries in which it was used. Every talent consists of 60 minæ, and every mina standard; the Euboic talent was to regulate those who made their payment in gold; the Babylonian talent, it is to be observed, is equal to seventy Euboic minæ. During the reign of Cyrus, and indeed of Cambyses, there were no specific tributes 101, but presents were made to the fovereign. On account of these and similar innovations, the Persians call Darius a merchant, Cambyses a despot, but Cyrus a parent. Darius seemed to have no other object in view but the acquisition of gain; Cambyses was negligent and fevere; whilft Cyrus was of a mild and gentle temper, ever studious of the good of his subjects.

XC. The Ionians and Magnesians of Asia, the..

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of 100 drachmæ, but the talents differed in weight according to the minæ and drachmæ of which they were composed.

What Herodotus here affirms of the Babylonian talent, is confirmed by Pollux and by Ælian.

The Euboic talent was so called from the island Eubea; it was generally thought to be the same with the Attic talent, because both these countries used the same weights; the mina Euboica, and the mina Attica, each consisted of 100 drachmä.

According to the above, the Babylonian talent would amount, in English money, to about £.226; the Euboic or Attic talent to £;. 193. 155.-T.

301 No specific tributes.] This seemingly contradicts what was faid above, that the magus exempted the Persians for three years from every kind of impoft. It must be observed that these imposts were not for a constancy, they only subsisted in time of war, and were rather a gratuity than an impoft. Those imposed by Darius were perpetual; thus Herodotus does not appear at all to contradict himself --Larcher.

Æolians,

Mio TH A L I A. Æolians, Carians, Lycians, Melyeans to, and Pam: phylians, were comprehended under one districts and jointly paid a tribute of four hundred talents of silver ; they formed the first satrapy. The seconds which paid five hundred talents, was composed of the Mysians, Lydians, Alysonians, Cabalians, and 330 Hygennians 103. A tribute of three hundred and fixty talents was paid by those who inhabit the right side of the Hellespont, by the Phrygians and Thracians of Afia, by the Paphlagonians, Mariandynians 1-4, and Syrians; and these nations constituted the third satrapy. The Cilicians were obliged to produce every day a white horse, that is to Tay, three hundred and sixty annually, with five hundred talents of silver ; of these one hundred and forty were appointed for the payment of the cavalry stationed for the guard of the country; the remaining three

102 Melyeans. ]-These people are in all probability the same with the Milyans of whom Herodotus speaks, book i. c. clxxiii. and book vii. c. clxxvii. They were sometimes called Mi-, nyans, from Minos, king of Crete. -T.

103 Higernians.] For Hygennians Wesseling proposes to read Obigenians.-T. .

104 Mariandynians.] These were on the coast of Bithynia, where was said to be the Acherufian cave, through which Hercules dragged up Cerberus to light, whose foam then produced aconite. Thus Dionysius Periegetes; l. 788.

That facred plain where erst, as fäblers tell,
The deep-voic'd dog of Pluto, ftruggling hard
Against the potent grasp of Hercules,
With foamy drops impregnating the earth,
Produc'd dire poison to destroy mankind.

hundred

hundred and fixty were received by Darius: these formed the fourth latrapy. um

, XCI. The tribute levied from the fifth fatrapy was three hundred and fifty talents. Under this district was comprehended the tract of country which extended from the city Pofideium, built on the frontiers of Cilicia and Syria, by Amphilochus, fon of Amphiaraus ós, as far as Ægypt, part of Ara. bia alone excluded, which paid no tribute. The same fatrapy, moreover, included all Phoenicia, the Syrian Palestine, and the ise of Cyprus. Seven hundred talents were exacted from Ægypt, from the Africans which border upon Ægypt, from Cy. rene and Barce, which are comprehended in the Ægyptian district. The produce of the fishery of the lake Maris was not included in this, neither was the corn, to the amount of seven hundred talents inore; one hundred and twenty thousand measures of which were applied to the maintenance of the

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305 Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus.]-For an account of Ampħiaraus, see book the first, chap. xlvi. The name of the mother of Amphilochus, according tò Pausanias, was' Eriphyle. He appears to have obtained an esteem and veneration equal to that which was paid to his father. He had an oracle at Mallus, in Cilicia, wbich place he built; he had also an altar erečied to his honour at Athens. His oracle continued in the time of Plutarch, and the mode of consulting it was this :—The person who wished an anfwer to some enquiry paffed a night in the temple, and was sure to have a vision, which was to be confidered as the reply. There is an example in Dion Caflius, of a picture which was painted in the time of Commodus, descriptive of an anfwer communicated by this oracle.-T.

Persians

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