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disease of mental parrowness and fa- ments of secrets and mysteries of policy, naticism it insensibly cures, by show- philosophy, and religion ; truths folded ing that every subject can be complete- up in mythological personifications ; ly apprehended only by viewing it from “sacred relics,” indeed, or "abstracted, various points; and a reader of Bacon rarefied airs of better times, which by instinctively meets the fussy or furious tradition from more ancient nations declaimer with the objection, “ But, fell into the trumpets and flutes of the sir, there is another side to this mat- Grecians.” He, of course, finds in ter."
these fables what he brings to them, It was one of Bacon's mistakes to the inductive philosophy and all. The believe that he would outlive the Eng- book is a marvel of ingenuity, and exlish language.
Those of his works, hibits the astounding analogical power therefore, which were not written in of his mind, both as respects analogies Latin he was eager to have translated of reason and analogies of fancy. Had into that tongue. The “Essays," com- Bacon lived in the age of Plato and ing home as they did to “men's business Aristotle, and written this work, he and bosoms,” he was persuaded would would have fairly triumphed over those "last as long as books should last”; philosophers; for he would have reconand as he thought, to use his own ciled ancient philosophy with ancient words, “that these modern languages religion, and made faith in Jupiter and would at some time or other play the Pan consistent with reason. bankrupt with books,” he employed But the work in which Bacon is most Ben Jonson and others to translate the pleasingly exhibited is his philosophiEssays into Latin, A Dr. Willmott cal romance, The New Atlantis. This published, in 1720, a translation of this happy island is a Baconian Utopia, a Latin edition into what he called re- philosopher's paradise, where the Noformed and fashionable English. We vum Organum is, in imagination, realwill give a specimen. Bacon, in his ized, and utility is carried to its loftiest Essay on Adversity, says:
· Pros- idealization. in this country the king perity is the blessing of the Old Testa- is good, and the people are good, bement, adversity is the blessing of the cause everything, even commerce, is New..... Yet even in the Old Testament, subordinated to knowledge. “Truth”. if you listen to David's harp, you shall here “prints goodness." All sensual and hear as many hearse-like airs as carols.” malignant passions, all the ugly deforDr. Willmott Englishes the Latin in mities of actual life, are sedately expelled this wise: “ Prosperity belongs to the from this glorious dream of a kingdom blessings of the Old Testament, adver- where men live in harmony with each sity to the beatitudes of the New..... other and with nature, and where observYet even in the Old Testament, if you ers, discoverers, and inventors are inlisten to David's harp, you 'll find more vested with an external pomp and dig. lamentable airs than triumphant ones.” nity and high place corresponding to This is translation with a vengeance ! their intellectual elevation. Here is a · Next to the Essays and the Advance- college worthy of the name, Solomon's ment of Learning, the most attractive House, “the end of whose foundation of Bacon's works is his Wisdom of the is the knowledge of causes and the Ancients. Here his reason and imagi- secret motions of things, and the ennation, intermingling or interchanging larging the bounds of human empire to their processes, work conjointly, and the effecting of all things possible”; produce a magnificent series of poems, and in Solomon's House Bacon's ideas while remorselessly analyzing imagina are carried out, and man is in the protions into thoughts. He supposes thatcess of being restored to the soveranterior to the Greeks, there were eignty of nature.” In this fiction, too, thinkers as wise as Bacon ; that the the peculiar beneficence of Bacon's heathen fables are poetical embodi- spirit is displayed ; and perhaps the finest sentence in his writings, certainly sentiment is strong and controlling. the one which best indicates the essen- The man transforms himself into a sort tial feeling of his soul as he regarded of earthly providence, and by intellihuman misery and ignorance, occurs in gence is emancipated from strict integhis description of one of the fathers of rity. But the intellectual eye, though Solomon's House. “His countenance," capable, like Bacon's, of being dilated at he says, “was as the countenance of will, is no substitute for conscience, and one who pities men.”
no device has ever yet been invented But, it may still be asked, how was which would do away with the usefulit that a man of such large wisdom, ness of simple honesty and blind moral with a soul really of such pervasive instinct. In the most comprehensive beneficence, was so comparatively weak view in politics something is sure to and pliant in his life? This question be left out, and that something is apt touches his mind no less than his char- to vitiate the sagacity of the whole acter ; and it must be said that, both combination. in the action of his mind and the actions Indeed, there is such a thing as beof his life, there is observable a lack ing over wise in dealing with practical both of emotional and moral intensity. affairs, and the defect of Bacon's intelHe is never impassioned, never borne lect is seen the moment we compare it away by an overmastering feeling or pur- with an intellect like that of Luther. pose. There is no rush of ideas and Bacon, with his serene superiority to passions in his writings, no direct con- impulse, and his power of giving his tact and close hug of thought and mind at pleasure its close compactness thing. Serenity, not speed, is his char- and fan-like spread, could hardly have acteristic. Majestic as is the move- failed to feel for Luther that compasment of his intellect, and far-reaching sionate contempt with which men posits glance, it still includes, adjusts, sessing many ideas survey men who feels into the objects it contemplates, are possessed by one ; yet it is cerrather than darts at them like Shake- tain that Luther never could have got speare's or pierces them like Chaucer's. entangled in Bacon's errors, for his And this intelligence, so wise and so habit was to cut knots which Bacon laworldly wise, so broad, bright, confi- bored to untie. Men of Luther's stamp dent, and calm, with the moral element never aim to be wise by reach but by pervading it as an element of insight intensity of intelligence. They catch a rather than as a motive of action, — this vivid glimpse of some awful spiritual was the instrument on which he equally fact, in whose light the world dwindles relied to advance learning and to ad- and pales, and then follow its inspiravance Bacon. As a practical politician, tion headlong, paying no heed to the he felt assured of his power to compre- insinuating whispers of prudence, and hend as a whole, and nicely to dis- crashing through the glassy expediencern the separate parts, of the most cies which obstruct their path. Such complicated matter which pressed for natures, in the short run, are the most judgment and for volition. Exercising visionary; in the long run, the most insight and foresight on a multitude of practical. Bacon has been praised by facts and contingencies all present to the most pertinacious revilers of his his mind at once, he aimed to evoke character for his indifference to the order from confusion, to read events metaphysical and theological controin their principles, to seize the salient versies which raged around him. They point which properly determines the do not seem to see that this indifferjudgment, and then act decisively for ence came from his deficiency in those his purpose, safely for his reputation intense moral and religious feelings out and fortune. Marvellous as this pro- of which the controversies arose. It cess of intelligence is, it is liable both to would have been better for himself had corrupt and mislead unless the moral he been more of a fanatic, for such a stretch of intelligence as he possessed Bacon, after pointing out the mistakes could be purchased only at the expense regarding the true end of knowledge, of dissolving the forces of his person- closes by divorcing it from all selfish ality in meditative expansiveness, and egotism and ambition. “Men,” he says, of weakening his power of dealing “ have entered into a desire of learning direct blows on the instinct or intuition and knowledge, sometimes upon a natuof the instant.
ral curiosity and inquisitive appetite; But while this man was without the sometimes to entertain their minds austerer virtues of humanity, we must with variety and delight; sometimes not forget that he was also without for ornament and reputation ; and its sour and malignant vices; and he sometimes to enable them to vicstands almost alone in literature, as a tory of wit and contradiction; and vast dispassionate intellect, in which most times for lucre and profession; the sentiment of philanthropy has been and seldom sincerely to give a true refined and purified into the subtile account of their gift of reason, to the essence of thought. Without this benefit and use of man; as if there were philanthropy or goodness, he tells us, sought in knowledge a couch where“man is but a better ‘kind of vermin”; upon to rest a searching and restless and love of mankind, in Bacon, is not spirit; or a terrace, for a wandering merely the noblest feeling but the and variable mind to walk up and highest reason. This beneficence, thus down with a fair prospect; or a tower transformed into intelligence, is not a of state, for a proud mind to raise ithard opinion, but a rich and mellow self upon; or a fort or commandingspirit of humanity, which communicates ground for strife or contention; or a the life of the quality it embodies ; and shop for profit and sale ; and not a rich we cannot more fitly conclude than by storehouse, for the glory of the Creator quoting the oble sentence in which and the relief of man's estate."
Rippling the wild bluff's daisied reach ;
And foams on the tawny beach.
Out where the long reef glooms and glances,
And tosses sunward its diamond rain,
The dizzy light-house pane.
Gladdened by clamors of infinite surges,
Heedless what billow or gale may do,
Blend with a glimmer of blue.
I watch how the curtaining vapor settles
Dim on their tireless plumes far borne,
Blown through the spacious morn.
THE TRADITIONA POLICY OF RUSSIA.
T this moment, when the Pan- many believe — the Northern Colossus
Slavic and Greco-Catholic Propa- has acted a part as an aggressive powganda gathers all its strength to aid the er in the East. Czar's government in making another Yet, in what a different light would push at the East, and when the Mus- “youthful” Russia be regarded, were covite armies, as a preparatory move, it kept in mind that, centuries before have taken possession of the Khanates Czar Peter, — nay, at the very epoch of Tartary, thus nearing the British when Alfred the Great founded the possessions of India, the traditional power of the English realm, — the anpolicy of Russia, as exhibited in her cient Russian Grand-Princes had alancient history, acquires a peculiar ready made themselves hateful to the importance.
Eastern world as barbarian sovereigns Current events are often the outcome of the most grasping ambition. Opinof deep-rooted tendencies. In the case ions with respect to Muscovite “orthoof Russia, everybody talks fluently of dox” policy would be altered, if the her “ traditional policy”; yet how few fact were remembered that, more than are there who have even a faint knowl- nine hundred years ago, when Russia edge of the political and social conditions was still sunk in paganism, the Danuthrough which that empire has passed bian Principalities, the countries of the during and after the Middle Ages ! Black Sea, the Balkan, and the BosphoThere is a wellnigh general, but with- rus, and the gates of Constantinople al fallacious, belief that Russia is “a itself, were already the theatre of Rusyoung state,” in the prime of life, sian invasion and attack! What would whose political organization dates only be thought of the “religious mission " from the last century. Hence those the autocrats have attributed to themcomparisons with the youthful Trans- selves, were it remembered that, in those atlantic Republic, arising out of a few far-distant times, the name, not only of accidental, and no doubt transitory, the heathen, but even of the Grecosimilarities, with omission of the deep Catholic Pôs (Russian), was pronounced and characteristic diversities.
with feelings of terror within the walls It is no exaggeration to say that even of Greco-Catholic Byzance long before in England, which is the rival Asiatic that city of world-wide importance had power with Russia, one might as well become the capital of the “ Padishah ask for a general knowledge of what and Caliphe of all the Mussulman bethe Aztecs of Tenochtitlan did a thou- lievers ” ? sand years ago as for an acquaintance If we would keep to real historical with ancient Muscovite history. As truth, we must reverse many current the existence of the human race is re- notions and preconceived ideas. We corded to have had its origin with must not seek in the so-called evidently “ Adam,” so Russian existence is often forged “ Testament of Peter I.” for the thought to have begun with a certain text-book of Russian attempts at univer“ Peter.” As to what occurred in the sal dominion, or for the first indices of fabulous times before the appearance Russian movements against Constanof that historical Czar scarcely any one tinople; this encroaching tendency cares to inquire. Ere the “Shipwright must be traced ten centuries back ! of Saardam” connected his empire with In the ninth century, when the RusWestern civilization, Russia is usually sians still revered the idols of Perun assumed to have been a terra incognita and Yurru, while Constantinople was to Europe. Since his time only — so ruled by an orthodox imperator, their Grand-Princes, as they were then by they sought to gain influence among called, made war against Constantino- the Greco-Slavonians of wbat now had ple, holding the savage doctrine that become Turkey; basely asserting that “ Byzantium must become their capital at no distant date the Czar would be because the Greeks were women and able to seize upon Constantinople as the Russians 'blood-men.'»
his inheritance, “because the marriage In the tenth century, when the Rus- of Ivan Vassiljevitch with the niece of sian Grand-Prince had embraced the the last Paleologus gives to Russia a same faith to which the Byzantine Em- title to the possession of the Lower pire adhered, another pretext had to Empire.” be framed for aggression. Constantino- Time passed on; the Porte lost its ple was then to become the residence military prestige, and the moment at of the barbarian, " because it suits the last appeared propitious to revive dignity of the Russian monarch to ancient pretensions by force of arms. receive baptism in the capital of East- So Peter I. propounded the doctrine ern Christendom."
that Constantinople must become the In the eleventh century, another tri- capital of Russia because “the religfling occasion was eagerly caught at by ious supremacy of the Czar is entitled Russia to make an attempt for the to sway the whole East.” conquest of Constantinople with one In the middle of the eighteenth cenhundred thousand men. And when tury, French philosophy penetrated insubsequently the Byzantine Emperors to the Cabinet of Catherine II. The were relieved from further attacks on grand seigneurs and roués of her volupthe part of Russia, it was only because tuous court coquetted with the ideas of she had become weakened by internal liberalism and classic humanism; confeuds and ultimately subjected to Mon- sequently the world had to be told gol rule.
that Constantinople ought to become a All this, we ought to note here, hap- Muscovite fief " because the republics pened at a time when Russia was not of ancient Hellas must be re-established yet so much of a Slavonian power as under Russian protection.” she at present is. Finnish and Tar- But philosophy and classicism got taric populations occupied, in those out of fashion at St. Petersburg when early centuries, a larger area within the the revolutionary storm thundered in confines of the empire than they at France. The old dictum was therefore present do. Superposed on those three reproduced, that Stamboul cannot regreat national divisions — the Fins, the main under Ottoman dominion “beSlavonians, and the Tartars — was a cause the infidel Turk is a disgrace to dynasty and a military aristocracy of the Holy City from whence Russia Northern, Germanic descent, which received the light of Christianity." probably came from Scandinavia, and This argument was strongly in favor which gave the empire it founded a with the late Czar Nicholas, who, howname imported from its Northern
had still another in reserve, -- not home.
this time of a religious character, – The Mongol invasion wiped out for namely, that Russia had a right of sucseveral centuries the existence of a cession to Turkey, “ because the Turk Russian Empire. On the revival of is a sick man." Let us add that even the latter a spark of the old ambition this medical dictum is a traditional one, reappears. In the fifteenth century already in vogue at the time of Caththe Muscovite autocrats return to the erine II., who was indebted for it to the old designs. They were certainly un- wit of Voltaire. able then to try the chance of arms Thus the spirit of encroachment has, against the powerful Osmanlee, who in with certain compulsory interruptions, the mean time had planted the Crescent always existed in Russia since the foron the cupola of St. Sophia. But by and mation of the Empire. Not in the