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was Indian corn. It did not grow in Europe, and no Englishman ever saw a field of it before coming to this country. The Red Men taught the Virginia settlers how to raise corn in an uncleared forest by simply girdling the trees and so letting the sunlight in. In Plymouth the Indians showed the Pilgrims how to make their corn grow by putting a fish, as a fertilizer in every hill. They showed them, too, how to make maple sugar, and how to spear fish through the ice in winter and pack them in snow till wanted; that was the Indian's "cold storage" system.

From them, too, the settlers learned to tan deer-skins for clothing, to make moccasins, snow-shoes, and birch-bark canoes - all articles of indispensable use in the American wilderness. 29. Value of wampum; Indian labor; trade with the Indians. Next to food and clothing one of the greatest wants felt by the colonists was some medium of exchange for carrying on trade with the natives. The Indians themselves met this want by their wampum or shell money. For many years this currency was practically well-nigh the only one in use in certain parts of the English settlements. It proved a most important factor in trading with the natives. The settlers also used it among themselves; they bought merchandise, hired labor, paid the salaries of their schoolmasters and ministers, and settled their tax-bills in clam-shell money.

Again, it was the Indians who first enabled the whites to open commerce with the mother-country. Fish and furs were always in demand in England; the Red Men were experts in trapping beaver, catching cod-fish, and in whaling; on this account the colonists found it profitable to hire their services.

On the other hand, the Indians were excellent customers for the hoes, knives, hatchets, blankets, muskets, ammunition, and rum which the colonists offered for sale. With iron hoes the natives could raise a much greater quantity of corn, and Governor Bradford states that the Narragansetts offered for sale from five hundred to a thousand bushels at a time.

30. Indian trails and water-ways; fur-trading posts. When the colonists had grown so strong that they had begun to develop an inland commerce, the Indian proved helpful in a different direction. In the course of centuries of travel the Red Man's feet had worn trails through the forests. The settlers took the hint and often laid out their roads on the line of these trails. In the State of New York the turnpike, the Erie Canal, and the New York Central railroad, running nearly side by side from Albany to Buffalo, follow the great Iroquois trail extending from the Hudson to Lake Erie. In America the Indian was the first road surveyor.43

The water-ways of the Indians were as valuable to the colonists as their trails. By means of their light birch canoes the natives could pass from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic on the one hand and to the Gulf of Mexico on the other. They transported immense quantities of furs from the interior to the sea-coast for shipment to Europe. Merchandise and household goods were carried West in the same way. Over this great network of water-ways the Indians were our first pilots. The fur-trading posts in the West marked the sites of what became important settlements. Detroit, Milwaukee, Chicago, St. Louis, and other Western cities began in this way.

31. The Indians claim the continent; Indian wars. The Red Man claimed the American continent as his own. The English colonists had to get their lands from him either by purchase, force, or fraud. Often the settlers bought the soil at a fair price. In other cases they deliberately drove the natives from their homes and hunting grounds, or shamefully cheated them out of their possessions by some cunning trick.

The result of such unfair treatment was war, and war accompanied by all the hideous acts of cruelty in which the Indians took delight. But the increase of the white settlers made conflict with the Indians well-nigh inevitable. The interests of the two races were to a certain extent antagonistic. The white man wanted to clear the land, in fact, had to clear it in order to

live; the Indian wanted to retain the primeval wilderness as a game preserve. Every tree which the settler's axe felled was a sign to the Red Man that he must sooner or later move further west or starve. Hence it is that, down to a comparatively late period, Indian wars occupy a prominent place in our history. 32. Our alliances with the Indians; the Iroquois, or "Five Nations."- Our alliances with the Indians were often as important as our wars with them. It was largely through the help of the Iroquois that the English prevented the Canadian French from getting possession of New York.

Again, the English, through the Indians of New York, obtained "their first real treaty-hold" on the rich country west of the Alleghanies, between the Ohio and the Great Lakes. Those Indians claimed that region by reason of their conquests over other tribes. By a treaty made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania (1744), the Iroquois ceded all their western lands to the King of England. When the French claimed that vast and fertile region by right of discovery and exploration, England replied, in behalf of her American colonies, that the territory was already hers by virtue of the Lancaster Indian treaty. Whether the Iroquois cession was valid or not, it was believed to be so, and it helped to open the way for the future growth of the English colonies in the West.

33. Summary of our relations with the Indians. We may summarize our relations with the Indians as economic and political. Under the first head we find that: 1. The Indians taught the settlers how to grow corn and thus supply themselves with an inexhaustible quantity of food. 2. They helped them to open up a highly profitable European trade in furs and fish. 3. They furnished the first currency for obtaining supplies to carry on that trade. 4. The Indian trails and water-ways became permanent means of communication to the settlers, and the fur-trading posts often grew into thriving cities.

Under the second head we find that: 1. The necessity of defence against hostile tribes induced the colonists to keep

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