« 上一頁繼續 »
Jax. 24, 1833.]
[H. OF R pendence is but a name-full of sound, but meaning for reducing us either to a dependence on that nation, nothing
or be clothed in skins, and live like wild beasts in My first inquiry shall be, was this system established in dens and caverns. I am proud to say I am not one of wisdom at the beginning? Preliminary, however, to an. them.” swering this question, I will state a fact which is matter Thus, Mr. Chairman, you see Mr. Jefferson, the great of well authenticated history, and will not be disputed by founder of republicanism, was decidedly in favor, not any body. It is this: There is no nation which has reach-only of protecting duties, but even of prohibition. I ed any degree of eminence, in either agriculture, com- hope his professed followers here, (and gentlemen must merce, or manufactures, but has had the protective sys- excuse me for qualifying the term, for I do not believe tem incorporated into their laws. England, as I will show any gentleman, who is opposed to protecting American in the sequel
, protects her home industry by a duty upon industry, is a true disciple of Thomas Jefferson,) I say, I all our principal staples, which excludes them almost en- hope his professed followers here will note this fact, that tirely from her markets. But more of this after a while. Thomas Jefferson, from whom they all pretend to have The question now is, was the system of protecting our imbibed their political creed, was himself a high, yea, an own farmers and mechanics a wise one at the beginning? ultra protectionist. He felt and expressed himself as every I think I need state but a few of the names and opinions American should. of those who founded it, to ensure the ready assent to the Mr. Madison, in 1809, held this language: affirmative of this proposition by every true American. “That it is not unworthy of reflection, that the arbiAt the head of my list stands proudly pre-eminent the trary edicts of contending nations to obstruct our trade father of his country.
with them, have, so far, abridged our means of procuring As early as December, 1796, General Washington used the productions and manufactures of which our own is the following short and pithy interrogatory, by way of now taking their place." asserting a proposition:
In his message of 1815 he said: “Ought our country to remain dependent on foreign “There is no subject which can enter with greater supply; precarious, because liable to be interrupted?" force into the deliberations of Congress, than a consider
Even at this early period of our history, General Wash- ation of the means to preserve and promote the manuington saw and felt the importance of being independent factures which have sprung into existence in the United of foreign Powers for every thing that was essential to States during the European wars." our comfort or prosperity. He saw that, when we pur So you see, sir, Mr. Madison thought that no subject sued nothing but agriculture and commerce, it was liable could enter with greater force into the deliberations of to be interrupted in a thousand ways; war, for instance, Congress. What higher commendation could he bestow or any other whim of the monarchs with whom we were upon the “ American system,” than this? None. He carrying on commerce, would put an end to it, and we had seen our commerce driven from the ocean. He had should be thrown back upon our own resources, wholly seen our ships rotting in our docks, and our corn and unprepared for the shock.' He saw, under this system of wheat rotting in our granaries. He saw us destitute of free trade, as it is now called, that, for months, and for many of the necessaries of life. He had seen our soldiers years at a time, our vessels would be compelled to lay at in the late war freezing for the want of blankets and anchor, and our agricultural products to rot in our barns. other necessary clothing. These were lessons of expeHow was this distressing state of things to be avoided? rience which he has never forgot. Why, by establishing the “ American system," of making In 1821 Mr. Monroe recommended the subject to every thing within ourselves, and always taking care to Congress; and in his message to this body, in 1823, he sell more than we bought; by diversifying employment; said: by withdrawing a part of our capital and labor from com " I recommend a review of the tariff, for the purpose merce and agriculture, and devoting it to home manufac- of affording such additional protection to those articles tures; thereby furnishing ourselves with the necessaries of which we are prepared to manufacture, or which are life, and at the same time creating a steady home market more immediately connected with the defence and indefor a vast amount of agricultural products. Thus we pendence of our country.” should be wholly independent of all foreign Powers; and Now, sir, I have given you the opinions of four of the unless we could carry on commerce with them upon prin- most illustrious citizens that this or any other country ciples of equality, we would not carry it on at all. Their has ever produced. And what is remarkable, they were wars and revolutions might rage with the utmost fury, all born south of the Potomac; were all raised, and lived, we could still carry on our system; but, upon the other and died, south of the Potomac. After this, sir, that principle, every little disturbance in Europe produced the "American system” should meet with opposition distress and ruin here. Mr. Jefferson said, in 1808: south of the Potomac, and, especially, that it should
“The suspension of our commerce, (just as General meet with opposition in old Virginia, to me is matter of Washington had said it would be,) produced by the in- profound astonishment, and, unaffectedly, I say, of deep justice of the belligerent Powers, and the consequent regret. losses and sacrifices of our citizens, are subjects of just I have shown the committee now what the opinions of concern. The situation into which we have been forced, these distinguished citizens were from time to time. I has compelled us to employ a portion of our industry and will now show you what was Virginia sentiment among capital to internal manufacturing improvements; and little the bulk of the people at home. doubt remains, that the establishments formed, and form
[From the Virginia Argus.) ing, will, under the auspices of cheaper materials and subsistence, the freedom of labor from taxation with us,
“ HENRICO, June 25, 1808. and of protecting duties and prohibitions, become per “I shall be troublesome to you, I fear, if I were to manent."
write half what I think ought to be said on the subject of In 1816, he wrote to a friend thus:
American manufactures.' “That, to be independent for the comforts of life, we “At present I will only say, that if the President of must fabricate them ourselves. We must now place the the United States, the heads of the departments, the manufacturer by the side of the agriculturist. The grand Governor, councillors of the State, judges and lawyers, inquiry now is, shall we make our own comforts, or go the members of both Houses of Congress, and of the without them, at the will of a foreign nation? He, there. State Legislature, would publicly wear clothes of Amefore, who is now against domestic manufactures, must be rican manufacture,' their example would be followed by
Under these oft repeated pledges, the capital, the extremity of this Union to the other. But I will proceed
H. OF R.
[JAN. 24, 1893. every citizen who is not a hardened tory, and who would tacle of this day was the large number of Virginia cicile well deserve a full suit of British broadcloth, well “tarred suits which adorned (mark, sir, they adorned] the persons and feathered.'
of our citizens. It was a badge for the consolation and “ AN ASSOCIATOR OF 74." encouragement of the belligerent Powers of Europe. I will read you now, sir, an extract of an address of Upon this homespun, enthusiasm and the spirit of inde Charles Magill
, L. A. Washington, and others, to the far- pendence have stamped all the value, all the pride of ormers of Frederick county:
nament. Many of their manufactures, although cbtained “Farmers: We propose to have a meeting on the 4th at a very short notice, were handsome specimens of what of July, at ten o'clock, at Mr. Baldwin's wool factory, our skill is competent to accomplish. When the use si near Perkins's mills, in this county, for the purpose of our own cloth shall become the fashion of the State, a forming some plan for improving the breed of sheep. it is rapidly becoming, the wheels and looms of Virginia The golden opportunity of taking this first step towards will not be deficient in the fineness and elegance of £» the encouragement of domestic manufactures, ought cer- ropean fabrics." tainly to be embraced by all those Americans who value Now, sir, after all this, who can doubt the paternity of the independence of their country.”
the “ American system?" Is it not old Virginia’s legitiI will now read an extract or two from a fourth of July mate offspring? if she has a descendant upon the face celebration in Goochland county.
of the earth, this is one. She conceived it--she brought The company were generally dressed in Virginia cloth. it forth. Among the regular toasts was the following:
Now, if Washington had wisdom and love of country
, "Domestic Manufactures.--They well co-operate with then this system was founded in wisdom and love of cours our republican system to perpetuate the blessings of in- try. If Jefferson had wisdom and love of country, then dependence.”
this system was built up, and carried to its present This, sir, was a regular toast; and the understanding is, height, by wisdom and love of country. In short, if Ma on such occasions, that a regular toast expresses the dison, if Monroe, if the whole shining constellation of sentiment of the whole company.
Virginia statesmen, who gave her the elevated standing The next extract which I shall read, is a very high and which she once had, were endowed with wisdom and fit very just compliment paid to my distinguished friend tue, then this system was founded in wisdom and virtäe. from Massachusetts, who sits before me. I make this But, sir, for the sake of argument, I will suppose that extract not in the spirit of a parasite to Alatter my friend, it was originally founded in error, and that it has been but I do it to show that, in those days of true American left to us, in 1833, to find it out. What shall not be feeling in Virginia, she could admire and bear witness to done? Will it be either wise or honest in us to abolish talent and virtue wherever found, even on the north of and to abolish it without premeditation or consultation the Potomac. They, on the occasion referred to, usher with our constituents? For, sir, I have met with no man in the name of my honorable
friend with this senti- who has had the hardihood to say that, when he left ment:
home, his constituents expected that this question would " John Quincy Adams.–So long as the Temple of Li-be agitated at this session. Even supposing, for at berty is worshipped in America, may the part he acted ment's sake, that the system had been conceived in error, while in the Senate of the United States be hailed with I say it would be unwise and dishonest in us now * rapture and delight.”
abolish it. In order to ensure a universal concurrer.de The following toast is taken from the fourth of July in this position, I think I need but state a few leading celebration in Mecklenburg:
facts. " The manufacturing genius of our countrymen. The The laws which have been passed by Congress sere wrongs of Britain first roused it; the aggressions of intended to invite men of capital
and of skill to enlarge France will continue it; and the patriotism of our citizens in this business. I say the laws were intended to invite will reward it."
We are now about to “reward it,” by prostrating it the faith of the nation was most solemnly pledged that and them at the feet of British power, and by sending they should be protected against foreign competition, this bill pass, it will work the complete overthrow and have been embarked to a very large amount. ruin of the whole system, which has been gradually build The aggregate capital which is now vested in domes ing At the celebration in Amelia, I find the following most tions. To destroy this capital alone, without considering
tic manufactures is, at least, two hundred and fifty mi excellent sentiment among the general toasts:
foreigners, whose opinions I have heard read upon its country to his party: the passing cloud will make his get our rivals in England to give me advice. I choose to
take it from our own citizens, who are perfectly fama I have no doubt but this will be the judgment of pos- with the whole business. The facts which these intel terity--the high eulogium which they will pass upon his gent and responsible American citizens have put forte whole political life-"He preferred his country to his and signed with their own names, have never, that I have The next and only extract which I will read is from the they are not true, and can be controverted, I should be
seen or heard, been controverted in one jot or tittle. If much pleased to hear some gentleman do so upon to
The first branch of American industry to which I .1)
"Domestic Manufactures. Without them no nation can society that would be felt-convulsively felt-from cele be truly independent." another, and, if any thing, a higher compliment than that to say, that my most material facts are derived from the verily believe most justly) a cardinal virtue in a politician, For some time, been before the public. They are the rest and which I regret much to say, sir, so few possess is sult of patient examination made by our own citizens og these times: brightness more " party."
of July 51808: “Yesterday was celebrated in this city with its custo- floor. mary honors. One of the most striking parts of the spec
Jax. 24, 1833.]
[H. OF R. call the attention of the committee, is that of iron. My average, at least 500 dollars more than in England, owfirst business under this head will be to show that the duty ing to the cheapness of iron in Great Britain. It is still on foreign iron has not raised the price to the consumer, dearer in the United States than in France. but that it has caused a very considerable reduction. Here it is asserted that a six horse power steam engine STATEMENT C,
costs 500 dollars more in France than it does in England, Showing the effects of a tariff of protection on the article France. Now it so happens, that in the United States,
and that it is still dearer in the United States than in of iron at Pittsburg and Cincinnati.
at Pittsburg, a steam engine, of that power, can be put In the years 1818, '19 and '20, bar iron in Pittsburg up, ready for action, for the identical sum of 500 dollars. sold at from 190 to 200 dollars per ton. Now the price is 100 dollars per ton.
Prices of Iron al Cincinnati. In the same years, boiler iron was 350 dollars per ton. 100, 105, 110. The fall in prices has been nearly as follows:
1814 to 1818, bar iron 200 to 220 dollars per ton--now Now at 140 dollars per ton. Sheet iron was but little niade in those years, and sold
1826, bar iron assorted, 125 to 135 dollars for 18 dollars per cwt. Now made in abundance, and
120 to 130 do. sold at 84 dollars per cwt.
do. Hoop iron, under same circumstances, was then 250
1121 to 1224 do. dollars, and is now 120 dollars.
100 to 110 do. 1831, do
100 to 110 Axes were then 24 dollars per dozen, and are now 12
Castings, including hollow ware, 1814 to 1818, 120 to Scythes are now 50 per cent. lower than they were
130 dollars per ton: present price, 60 to 65, and the then--as are spades and shovels.
quality much improved. Iron hoes were in those years 9 dollars per dozen. Now
STATEMENT D. & very superior article of steel hoes at 4 to 45 dollars.
The duties on iron imported into the United States Socket shovels are made at 41 dollars by the same in- were, in 1804 to 1812, 15 per cent.; double war duties dividual who, a few years ago, sold them at 12 dollars per from 1812 to 1816. In 1816, duties, rolled iron, 30 doldozen.
lars per ton: hammered, nine dollars. The law of 1816, Slater's patent stoves, imported from England, sold in fixing the duties at these rates, ruined many of the manuPittsburg at 350 to 400 dollars. A much superior arti- facturers, and compelled them to abandon their works. cle is now made there, and sold for 125 to 150 dollars. By the act of April 20, 1818, the duty on hammered iron
English vices then sold for 20 to 22 cents per lb. Now was raised to 15 dollars. This, in some measure, revived a superior article is sold at 10 to 10.
the manufacture, and many who had abandoned, resumed Braziers' rods in 1824 were imported, and cost 14 cents their operations. The foreign manufacturerer, to keep per lb. or $313 60 per ton. Now supplied to any amount possession of the market, offered his iron at a less price; of 1 to y diameter, at 130 dollars per ton.
so that there was an actual decline here. In 1824, the Steam engines have fallen in price since 1823 one-half, duty on hammered iron was raised to 18 dollars, and in and they have one-half more work on them.
1828 to $22 40. These additions to the duty had no perThe engine at the Union rolling mill, (Pittsburg,) in manent effect in raising the price. The foreign manufac1819, cost 11,000 dollars. A much superior one, of' 130 turer could not advance his prices beyond those of 1824, horse power, for Sligo mill, cost, in 1826, 3,000.
because the American iron maker supplied the market In 1830, there were made in Pittsburg one hundred at those rates; and iron at a duty of $22. 40, sells at less steam engines.
than it did at one of nine dollars. The foreign manufacturer In 1831, one hundred and fifty will be made, averaging has been compelled to take the additional duties from his 2,000 dollars; or 300,000 in that article alone.
profits, and these deductions from his profits have been A two horse power engine costs 250 dollars; six horse, paid into the treasury of the United States, without ad500 dollars; eight to nine horse, 700 dollars. These last ding to the price paid by the American consumer. are the prices, delivered and put up,
The following table shows the operation of the addiAt least 600 tons of iron made in Pittsburg are manu-tional duty levied since 1818 on hammered iron alone. factured into other articles before it leaves the city, from
$208,950 steam engines of the largest size, down to a threepenny nail. 1818, imported of hammered iron 13,931 Eight rolling and slitting mills, of the largest power,
16,160 242,394 are in the city of Pittsburg, five of which have been 1820,
19,531 272,877 erected since 1828.
15,374 230,413 Thirty-eight new furnaces have been erected since 1822,
26,373 378,641 1824 in the western parts of Pennsylvania, and that part 1823,
29,014 435,210 of Kentucky bordering on the Ohio river; most of them 1824,
21,298 383,364 since 1828.
23,085 428,490 The quantity of iron rolled at Pittsburg was-
23,837 427,066 In 1828, tons, 3,291 1900 1827,
21,718 390,924 1829, 6,217 17 0 0 1828,
33,155 663, 100 1830, 9,282 200 1829,
29,202 654,141 Being an increase of nearly 200 per cent. in two years.
estimated* 29,202 654,141 The above facts were furnished by members of the committee residing at Pittsburg, who vouch for their ac
301,880 =5,369,711 curacy.
Duties at $9, the rate per law of 1816, 2,716,920 One fact there stated suggests the following remarks to the committee:
Gain in the Treasury, at the expense of the To the report of the select committee of the Senate of
$2,652,791 the United States, on the subject of iron, is appended, among other papers, one in which it is stated that “it is the small amount of the latter importation is the best possible evi
Since ascertained 30,973 tons, of which only 439 tons were British, now ascertained that the superiority of England over dence of the bad quality of English iron, as stated in the subsequent France is entirely due to the cheapness of iron: a six pages, and of its unfitness for the usual purposes to which hammered horse steam engine, for instance, in France, costs, on the inne applied. All such iron pays the same duty.-Permanent Com
H. OF R.]
[Jan. 24, 1833. STATEMENT E.
But this aspect of the case is not the beginning of the evil
which the community are doomed to suffer from this rast, The following calculations were made by Hardman precipitous, and blind legislation. The annual product of Phillips and George Valentine, and are derived from the iron in the United States is estimated to be worth tlirteen average returns submitted to the committee from two million three hundred and twenty-nine thousand seren counties, those most extensively engaged in the manufac- hundred and sixty dollars, which, if the business falik, is ture of iron in Pennsylvania, namely Centre and Hun-stricken out of existence, and is so much clear loss erezy tingdon, and have been carefully verified by a comparison year to tlie wealth of the nation. You deprive, moreover
, with returns from 73 furnaces and 132 forges. For each ton of bar iron and castings made, the fol- and mechanics of the employment by which they eam
twenty-nine thousand two hundred and fifty-four laborers lowing agricultural produce is found to be consumed:
their daily bread for themselves and families! You de 20 bushels wheat and rye, average, at 75 cents $15 00 prive one hundred and forty-six thousand two bundred 57 lbs. pork
5 2 85 and seventy-three souls of subsistence, until those on whom 43 lbs. beef
4 1 72 they depend can seek a new channel for their labor, h 10 lbs. butter
1 25 the mean time there must be great and universal suffering. 2 bushels potatoes
60 You throw out of circulation eight million seven hundred • 4 ton hay
$7 3 50 and seventy-six thousand four hundred and twenty dollars For every ten tons of bar iron, one horse is em
in wages paid to the laborers. Is this all? No, sir. You ployed one whole year, worth 100 dollars, take from the farmers four million four hundred and nine and experience shows that the mortality ty dollars, which they receive annually from the iron is among horses so employed is, per annum, one nufacturers for agricultural products!! in seven, and constitutes a charge per ton of 1 43 Now, how will
these arrangements work? What is to For fruit and vegetables, of which no return has become of the twenty thousand laborers who are to be been made, we feel justified in putting down 1 00 thrown out of the iron employment? At least nineteen
twentieths of them will be driven into agriculture, which
27 35 is already able to overstock the market. The farmers Which, multiplied by the quantity of bariron and castings, will be deprived of a market where they have been able will give the sum of 3,415,850 dollars, paid by the iron to send upwards of four millions worth of produce. Thus manufacturers, and those employed by them, to the far- will this ruinous policy cut upon the farmer like a twomers.
edged sword. The supply of agricultural products wi. The same returns enable them to state that every five be greatly increased, and the demand for them diminished tons of iron, as above made, requires one able-bodied man to an amount of at least four millions. Sir, if a more rutthroughout the year, or, in the whole, 24,979; and, as ous state of things could be devised for the farmer
, Paco it appears that, upon an average, each one of these has dora, the goddess of evil, must do it. And why are our four dependent upon him, it follows that 124,895 persons
establishments to be broken down? Why are our citizers are supported by this branch of industry, in its first stages; to be thrown out
of employment? Why are we to be led and the average of the wages of the workmen being fully low at the feet of British power? Is it that we are to get one dollar per day, or say 300 per annum, they receive iron cheaper! No! For we get it cheaper now than we for wages, in the whole, the large sum of 7,493,700 dollars ever have before. Are we to get better iron? No
, We for the labor of one year.
get better iron now than we ever did before. Why, then
, The expense of transporting this iron to the different sir, in the name of Heaven, is this sweeping desolation to markets, by land and water, may be estimated at an ave. be brought upon the country? rage of ten dollars per ton, amounting to 1,248,940 dollars; The same remarks will apply to all our manufacturing the whole of which is distributed among those engaged establishments. Iron is left in a better condition than in the transportation and coasting trade of the country, any of them, and those who are best acquainted with and subdivided among those who furnish subsistence to that subject say it cannot stand if the present bill past
, the many persons employed, and in furnishing means for If iron cannot stand, then, what is to become of wool
lens and other interests, which have a protection so far These facts show conclusively that the consumer gets below that of iron? Why, as a matter of course, they a better article, and at a lower price, than he did before must be prostrated immediately, and at once. I will, protection was extended to this branch of industry.
therefore, attempt to show the committee the amount of Aggregate of iron made in the United States.
capital in a few other branches of American industry,
and which, if this bill pass, might as well be thrown into Bar iron, tons
112,866 the ocean. I will also show the number of person einPig iron
191,536 ployed, and the number dependent upon these institusValue in dollars
13,329,760 tions for the bread they eat. As it will not be in me Number of men employed
29,254 power to review every branch, I will take a few wize Persons subsisted
146,273 will bring the question home directly to every mar's Annual wages
8,776,420 bosom and fireside. Paid for food furnished by farmers
4,000,490 This, sir, I feel warranted in saying, falls very far short are charged with making most enormous profits
, let us
But before I leave this subject, as the manufacturers of the full amount of this business. There are several look a little into the accusation. furnaces and forges, within my knowledge, which do a very considerable business, and which are not here enu- one year in the United States is
The aggregate value of all the iron manufactured in merated. But, sir, take the iron business as here stated, and abol- and laborers
Deduct from this the pay to the workmen ish it, and what will be the effect upon society? You de. stroy one hundred and twelve thousand eight hundred and sixty-six tons of bar iron, and one hundred and ninety-one thousand and thrty-six tons of pig iron. Do you think cultural products
Deduct amount paid to farmers, for agrithis would not be likely to raise the price of iron to the it with the American farmers and mechanics to judge. subject to the wear and tear of machinery, and all com
Leaves this balance
INDEX TO THE DEBATES IN THE SENATE.
American State Papers, a proposition for extending the Light-houses, a bill was received from the House on the
Jast evening of the session, and read a first time;
but Mr. Grundy objecting to its being read a se-
cond time, and as it could not be so read at that
powers of the Government, 191, 750; laid on the of course, rejected, 812.
Louisville and Portland canal, a bill to authorize the pur-
chase of the private stock in, 359; laid on the
for copies of the military orders given to the
resumed, 405; agreed to, 433.
cient punishment of crimes against the United open a canal in the Big Swamp, 12.
Order, points of, 300, 480.
809; laid on the table, 810.
the rates of postage, 27; discussed; agreed to,
Powers of the Government, three resolutions defining
these powers, 191, 750; laid on the table, 785.
nessee, elected, 2.
lection of imposts, 150; taken up, 280, and or- President's message received, 3. (See the Appendix for
a copy of it.)
final settlement of the claims of States for inte-
rest on advances to the United States during the
ing between Mr. Poindexter and Mr. Webster, Presidential election, a day fixed for counting the electo-
ral votes, 359; the votes counted, and Andrew
Jackson was declared to be elected President,
the expediency of making further provision for Printer to Congress, the resolution for his election taken
South Carolina, called for, 99; proposition laid
claims due to certain American citizens, 5; re- Revenue. (See Frauds on, and Duties.)
ment of articles of foreign growth or manu-
to be reduced, &c., 8; agreed to, 27.
sheathing copper, a bill to amend the act to amend the
of again bringing forward his bill for disposing to be engrossed, 661.
Foreign Relations to inquire into the expediency
of obtaining evidence deposited in the State De-
partment, 38; agreed to.
Special order, a resolution for changing the hour of taking
it up, agreed to, 359.
each, for the pro- Standing committees appointed, 4,
of the Treasury to furnish the project of a bill
ty with the suggestions in his report, 6.